Welcome to Francis Academic Press

Frontiers in Medical Science Research, 2023, 5(10); doi: 10.25236/FMSR.2023.051016.

The Role of Cognitive Reappraisal Emotion Regulation Strategies in Adolescent Depression


Yu Zhu

Corresponding Author:
Yu Zhu

Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, 750021, China


Depression is the most common mental illness in adolescence, characterized by an inability to regulate the negative emotional response to stress. In recent years, as the number of adolescents with depression has increased, how to treat it has gradually become a widespread social concern. Cognitive reappraisal, an emotion regulation strategy that can be pre-occupied and widely adaptable in psychopathology, may be a new direction to improve adolescent depressive symptoms. By studying a large body of English literature, this article provides an overview of adolescent depression and cognitive reappraisal strategies, and reviews the application and current status of cognitive reappraisal emotion regulation strategies to improve adolescent depression.


Cognitive reappraisal; adolescent depression; emotion regulation

Cite This Paper

Yu Zhu. The Role of Cognitive Reappraisal Emotion Regulation Strategies in Adolescent Depression. Frontiers in Medical Science Research (2023) Vol. 5, Issue 10: 112-119. https://doi.org/10.25236/FMSR.2023.051016.


[1] Valerie S Harder, Sara E Barry, Sarah French, et al. Improving Adolescent Depression Screening in Pediatric Primary Care [J]. Academic Pediatrics, 2019, 19(8):925-933.

[2] Jami Young. 25.2 interpersonal psychotherapy: adolescent skills training for the prevention of adolescent depression [J]. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2016, 55(10):S38-S39. 

[3] Bježančević Marina, Groznica Hržić Ivana, Dodig-Ćurković Katarina, et al. Self-Injury in Adolescents: A Five-Year Study of Characteristics and Trends [J]. Psychiatria Danubina, 2019, 31(4): 413-420. 

[4] Brian Suffoletto. Expanding Adolescent Depression Prevention through Simple Communication Technologies [J]. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2016, 59(4):373-374.

[5] Webb Thomas L, Miles Eleanor, Sheeran Paschal, et al. Dealing with feeling: a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation [J]. Psychological bulletin, 2012, 138(4):775-808. 

[6] Ronald C Kessler, Patricia Berglund, Olga Demler, et al. The Epidemiology of Major Depressive Disorder: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) [J]. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 2003, 289(23):3095-3105. 

[7] James J Gross. The Emerging Field of Emotion Regulation: An Integrative Review [J]. Review of General Psychology, 1998, 2(3):271-299. 

[8] Silk Jennifer S, Steinberg Laurence, Morris Amanda Sheffield, et al. Adolescents' emotion regulation in daily life: links to depressive symptoms and problem behavior [J]. Child development, 2003, 74(6):1869-1880. 

[9] van Rijsbergen Gerard D, Bockting Claudi L H, Burger Huibert, et al. Mood reactivity rather than cognitive reactivity is predictive of depressive relapse: a randomized study with 5.5-year follow-up [J]. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 2013, 81(3):508-517. 

[10] Amelia Aldao, Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, Susanne Schweizer, et al. Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review [J]. Clinical Psychology Review, 2010, 30(2): 217-237. 

[11] Rothbart M K, Derryberry D. Development of individual differences in temperament [M]. Advances in developmental psychology, 1981. 

[12] Gross J J. Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology [J]. Journal of personality and social psychology, 1998, 74(1): 224-237. 

[13] Moore Sally A, Zoellner Lori A, Mollenholt Niklas, et al. Are expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal associated with stress-related symptoms? [J]. Behaviour research and therapy, 2008, 46(9): 1993-1000. 

[14] Hermann Andrea, Kress Laura, Stark Rudolf, et al. Neural correlates of immediate and prolonged effects of cognitive reappraisal and distraction on emotional experience [J]. Brain imaging and behavior, 2017, 11(5):1227-1237. 

[15] Appleton Allison A, Loucks Eric B, Buka Stephen L, et al. Divergent associations of antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation strategies with midlife cardiovascular disease risk [J]. Annals of behavioral medicine: a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 2014, 48(2): 246-255. 

[16] Zorana Ivcevic, Marc Brackett. Predicting school success: Comparing Conscientiousness, Grit, and Emotion Regulation Ability [J]. Journal of Research in Personality, 2014, 52:29-36. 

[17] Cludius Barbara, Mennin Douglas, Ehring Thomas, et al. Emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic process [J]. Emotion (Washington, D.C.), 2020, 20(1):37-42. 

[18] Shafir Roni, Schwartz Naama, Blechert Jens, et al. Emotional intensity influences pre-implementation and implementation of distraction and reappraisal [J]. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 2015, 10(10):1329-1337. 

[19] Silvers Jennifer A, Weber Jochen, Wager Tor D, et al. Bad and worse: neural systems underlying reappraisal of high- and low-intensity negative emotions [J]. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 2015, 10(2):172-179. 

[20] Waugh Christian E. The roles of positive emotion in the regulation of emotional responses to negative events [J]. Emotion (Washington, D.C.), 2020, 20(1):54-58. 

[21] Carmen Morawetz, Stefan Bode, Birgit Derntl, et al. The effect of strategies, goals and stimulus material on the neural mechanisms of emotion regulation: A meta-analysis of fMRI studies [J]. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 2017, 72:111-128. 

[22] Walker Matthew P, van der Helm Els. Overnight therapy? The role of sleep in emotional brain processing [J]. Psychological bulletin, 2009, 135(5):731-748. 

[23] Zhan Jun, Wu Xiaofei, Fan Jin, et al. Regulating Anger under Stress via Cognitive Reappraisal and Sadness [J]. Frontiers in Psychology, 2017, 8:1372. 

[24] McRae Kateri, Gross James J, Weber Jochen, et al. The development of emotion regulation: an fMRI study of cognitive reappraisal in children, adolescents and young adults [J]. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 2012, 7(1):11-22. 

[25] Dorit Maor, Katherine Mitchem. Hospitalized Adolescents’ Use of Mobile Technologies for Learning, Communication, and Well-Being [J]. Journal of Adolescent Research, 2020, 35(2):225-247. 

[26] van den Heuvel Marieke W H, Stikkelbroek Yvonne A J, Bodden Denise H M, et al. Coping with stressful life events: Cognitive emotion regulation profiles and depressive symptoms in adolescents [J]. Development and Psychopathology, 2019, 32(3):1-11. 

[27] J Gaab, N Blättler, T Menzi, et al. Randomized controlled evaluation of the effects of cognitive–behavioral stress management on cortisol responses to acute stress in healthy subjects [J]. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2003, 28(6):767-779. 

[28] Ochsner Kevin N, Silvers Jennifer A, Buhle Jason T, et al. Functional imaging studies of emotion regulation: a synthetic review and evolving model of the cognitive control of emotion [J]. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2012, 1251(1):E1-24. 

[29] Kevin N Ochsner, Rebecca D Ray, Jeffrey C Cooper, et al. For better or for worse: neural systems supporting the cognitive down- and up-regulation of negative emotion [J]. Neuroimage, 2004, 23(2):483-499. 

[30] Erk Susanne, Mikschl Alexandra, Stier Sabine, et al. Acute and sustained effects of cognitive emotion regulation in major depression [J]. The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 2010, 30(47):15726-15734. 

[31] Phan K Luan, Fitzgerald Daniel A, Nathan Pradeep J, et al. Neural substrates for voluntary suppression of negative affect: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study [J]. Biological psychiatry, 2005, 57(3):210-219. 

[32] J Lévesque, Y Joanette, B Mensour, et al. Neural basis of emotional self-regulation in childhood [J]. Neuroscience, 2004, 129(2):361-369. 

[33] Naomi B Pitskel, Danielle Z Bolling, Martha D Kaiser, et al. How grossed out are you? The neural bases of emotion regulation from childhood to adolescence [J]. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2011, 1(3):324-337. 

[34] Dannlowski Udo, Ohrmann Patricia, Bauer Jochen, et al. Amygdala reactivity to masked negative faces is associated with automatic judgmental bias in major depression: a 3 T fMRI study [J]. Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN, 2007, 32(6):423-429. 

[35] Teresa A Victor, Maura L Furey, Stephen J Fromm, et al. Relationship Between Amygdala Responses to Masked Faces and Mood State and Treatment in Major Depressive Disorder [J]. Archives of General Psychiatry, 2010, 67(11):1128-1138. 

[36] Christopher G Davey, Nicholas B Allen, Ben J Harrison, et al. Increased Amygdala Response to Positive Social Feedback in Young People with Major Depressive Disorder [J]. Biological Psychiatry, 2010, 69(8):734-741. 

[37] Greg Perlman, Alan N Simmons, Jing Wu, et al. Amygdala response and functional connectivity during emotion regulation: A study of 14 depressed adolescents [J]. Journal of Affective Disorders, 2012, 139(1):75-84.