Welcome to Francis Academic Press

Frontiers in Medical Science Research, 2023, 5(12); doi: 10.25236/FMSR.2023.051211.

Progress in the application of HRMR-VWI in ischemic stroke


Yu Xin, Ban Yunqing

Corresponding Author:
Ban Yunqing

Imaging Center,the Fifth Clinical College of Medicine, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, 830011, Xinjiang, China


China is facing the biggest stroke challenge in the world. At the same time, due to the improvement of production technology and the change of survival mode, stroke diseases appear younger trend, of which ischemic stroke accounted for the main proportion, mainly due to intracranial artery disease caused by artery stenosis, the main cause is atherosclerosis disease. At the same time, it also includes aneurysm, vasculitis, artery dissection, moyamoya disease and other reasons. High resolution vascular wall imaging is a non-invasive and advanced examination technology, which can directly visualize intracranial vascular wall and its pathological changes, and has been widely studied and applied in various intracranial artery diseases in recent years. In this paper, the advantages, imaging evaluation, risk factors and application progress of this technique in intracranial atherosclerosis were reviewed.


Vascular wall imaging; Ischemic stroke; Risk factors

Cite This Paper

Yu Xin, Ban Yunqing. Progress in the application of HRMR-VWI in ischemic stroke. Frontiers in Medical Science Research (2023) Vol. 5, Issue 12: 84-88. https://doi.org/10.25236/FMSR.2023.051211.


[1] Wang Y J, Li Z X, Gu H Q, et al. Chinese Stroke Report 2020 (Chinese version) (1) [J]. Chinese Journal of Stroke, 2022, 17(05): 433-47.

[2] Zhang G B, Huang H W, Guo W. Current situation and prevention of stroke among young people in China and Africa [J]. Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2022, 56(8): 1142-9.

[3] ZHU Z, YU W. Update in the treatment of extracranial atherosclerotic disease for stroke prevention [J]. Stroke Vasc Neurol, 2020, 5(1): 65-70.

[4] CAI B, PENG B. Intracranial artery stenosis: Current status of evaluation and treatment in China [J]. Chronic Dis Transl Med, 2017, 3(4): 197-206.

[5] Liu M, ZHANG G P, Li D J, et al. Application value of 3.0T MR Vascular wall high-resolution imaging in diagnosis of intracranial vascular diseases [J]. Guizhou Med, 2022, 46(5): 804-5.

[6] SONG J W, WASSERMAN B A. Vessel wall MR imaging of intracranial atherosclerosis [J]. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther, 2020, 10(4): 982-93.

[7] Ma N E. Research progress of MR Vessel wall imaging of intracranial arterial responsible plaque [J]. Journal of Practical Radiology, 2021, 37(10): 1724-7.

[8] TIAN X, TIAN B, SHI Z, et al. Assessment of Intracranial Atherosclerotic Plaques Using 3D Black-Blood MRI: Comparison With 3D Time-of-Flight MRA and DSA [J]. J Magn Reson Imaging, 2021, 53(2): 469-78.

[9] MAZZACANE F, MAZZOLENI V, SCOLA E, et al. Vessel Wall Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Cerebrovascular Diseases [J]. Diagnostics (Basel), 2022, 12(2).

[10] YANG D, LIU Y, HAN Y, et al. Signal of Carotid Intraplaque Hemorrhage on MR T1-Weighted Imaging: Association with Acute Cerebral Infarct [J]. AJNR American journal of neuroradiology, 2020, 41(5): 836-43.

[11] ANDREAS S, REGINA S, NISHAF A, et al. Prediction of Stroke Risk by Detection of Hemorrhage in Carotid Plaques [J]. JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, 2018, 13(2 Pt 1).

[12] Qiao C, Song Q W, Wang F. Research progress of high-resolution MR Vascular wall imaging for intracranial atherosclerotic diseases [J]. Chinese Medical Imaging Technology, 2022, 38(8): 1266-9.

[13] ZHAI S J, JIA L, KUKUN H J, et al. Predictive power of high-resolution vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging in ischemic stroke [J]. Am J Transl Res, 2022, 14(1): 664-71.

[14] GUPTA A, BARADARAN H, AL-DASUQI K, et al. Gadolinium Enhancement in Intracranial Atherosclerotic Plaque and Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis [J]. J Am Heart Assoc, 2016, 5(8).

[15] VAN DER KOLK A G, ZWANENBURG J J, BRUNDEL M, et al. Intracranial vessel wall imaging at 7.0-T MRI [J]. Stroke, 2011, 42(9): 2478-84.

[16] M K R, YE Q, LI L, et al. Temporal course and implications of intracranial atherosclerotic plaque enhancement on high-resolution vessel wall MRI [J]. Neuroradiology, 2019, 61(6).

[17] QIAO Y, ZEILER S R, MIRBAGHERI S, et al. Intracranial plaque enhancement in patients with cerebrovascular events on high-spatial-resolution MR images [J]. Radiology, 2014, 271(2): 534-42.

[18] KIM J M, JUNG K H, SOHN C H, et al. Intracranial plaque enhancement from high resolution vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging predicts stroke recurrence [J]. Int J Stroke, 2016, 11(2): 171-9.

[19] LUO J, BAI X, TIAN Q, et al. Patterns and implications of artery remodeling based on high-resolution vessel wall imaging in symptomatic severe basilar artery stenosis [J]. Quant Imaging Med Surg, 2023, 13(4): 2098-108.

[20] ZHU X J, DU B, LOU X, et al. Morphologic characteristics of atherosclerotic middle cerebral arteries on 3T high-resolution MRI [J]. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2013, 34(9): 1717-22.

[21] WEXBERG P, GYöNGYöSI M, SPERKER W, et al. Pre-existing arterial remodeling is associated with in-hospital and late adverse cardiac events after coronary interventions in patients with stable angina pectoris [J]. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2000, 36(6): 1860-9.

[22] Yang L, Wang X C. Application of high resolution magnetic resonance vascular wall imaging in ischemic stroke [J]. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 2022, 13(5): 136-9.

[23] PASTERKAMP G, GALIS Z S, DE KLEIJN D P. Expansive arterial remodeling: location, location, location [J]. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2004, 24(4): 650-7.

[24] XU W H, LI M L, GAO S, et al. Plaque distribution of stenotic middle cerebral artery and its clinical relevance [J]. Stroke, 2011, 42(10): 2957-9.

[25] VRANIC J E, HARTMAN J B, MOSSA-BASHA M. High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Vessel Wall Imaging for the Evaluation of Intracranial Vascular Pathology [J]. Neuroimaging Clin N Am, 2021, 31(2): 223-33.

[26] OJHA R, HUANG D, AN H, et al. Distribution of ischemic infarction and stenosis of intra- and extracranial arteries in young Chinese patients with ischemic stroke [J]. BMC Cardiovasc Disord, 2015, 15: 158.

[27] KANG H G, LEE C H, SHIN B S, et al. Characteristics of Symptomatic Basilar Artery Stenosis Using High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Ischemic Stroke Patients [J]. J Atheroscler Thromb, 2021, 28(10): 1063-70.

[28] PACHECO F T, CRUZ JUNIOR L, PADILHA I G, et al. Current uses of intracranial vessel wall imaging for clinical practice: a high-resolution MR technique recently available [J]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr, 2020, 78(10): 642-50.

[29] MOSSA-BASHA M, ALEXANDER M, GADDIKERI S, et al. Vessel wall imaging for intracranial vascular disease evaluation [J]. J Neurointerv Surg, 2016, 8(11): 1154-9.

[30] Zhao F, Yang C H, Wang B, et al. The clinical significance of high resolution magnetic resonance imaging on etiological classification of CISS in ischemic stroke [J]. Ningxia Medical Journal, 2021, 43(7): 621-3.

[31] CHIMOWITZ M I, LYNN M J, HOWLETT-SMITH H, et al. Comparison of warfarin and aspirin for symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis [J]. N Engl J Med, 2005, 352(13): 1305-16.

[32] CHUNG G H, KWAK H S, HWANG S B, et al. High resolution MR imaging in patients with symptomatic middle cerebral artery stenosis [J]. Eur J Radiol, 2012, 81(12): 4069-74.

[33] XU W H, LI M L, GAO S, et al. In vivo high-resolution MR imaging of symptomatic and asymptomatic middle cerebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis [J]. Atherosclerosis, 2010, 212(2): 507-11.

[34] SHI M C, WANG S C, ZHOU H W, et al. Compensatory remodeling in symptomatic middle cerebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis: a high-resolution MRI and microemboli monitoring study [J]. Neurol Res, 2012, 34(2): 153-8.

[35] VARNAVA A M, MILLS P G, DAVIES M J. Relationship between coronary artery remodeling and plaque vulnerability [J]. Circulation, 2002, 105(8): 939-43.

[36] Tian C L, Pu C Q, Li X M, et al. Duration and influencing factors of ischemic cerebrovascular disease induced by hypertension [J]. Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine, 2003, 42(8): 540-.

[37] LU R, MENG H, GAO X, et al. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on short chain fatty acid levels in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis [J]. J Periodontal Res, 2014, 49(5): 574-83.

[38] Lin W L, Jia L, Wang Y L, et al. Application of high resolution magnetic resonance vascular wall imaging to the analysis of vascular characteristics in patients with hypertension [J]. Journal of Xinjiang Medical University, 2019, 42(11): 1430-2,6.