Welcome to Francis Academic Press

Academic Journal of Medicine & Health Sciences, 2024, 5(3); doi: 10.25236/AJMHS.2024.050306.

Celiac Disease: An Underrecognized Concern in Women's Health


Wanxin Zhou

Corresponding Author:
Wanxin Zhou

Benenden School, Cranbrook Kent, TN17 4AA, United Kingdom


Celiac disease (Celiac disease, CD) is a kind of autoimmune bowel disease caused by dietary gluten in genetically susceptible individuals, also known as non-tropical inflammatory fatty diarrhea (Non-tropical sprue), wheat gum bowel disease (Glutenenteropathy), idiopathic fatty diarrhea (Idiopathicsteatonhea), gluten mainly exists in wheat and other crops, including rye, barley, oats, etc. All foods produced and processed from these cereals, such as bread, cakes, biscuits, and beers, contain gluten. The components of gluten include gluten (glutenin) and alcohol-soluble gluten (alcohol-soluble protein, prolamine). Immune response, born in the small intestine, has increased significantly in the past five decades, especially in the last decade, but overall, it remains an underestimated problem in women's health.


celiac disease; female health; autoimmune liver disease

Cite This Paper

Wanxin Zhou. Celiac Disease: An Underrecognized Concern in Women's Health. Academic Journal of Medicine & Health Sciences (2024), Vol. 5, Issue 3: 30-36. https://doi.org/10.25236/AJMHS.2024.050306.


[1] Fryk E, Wilsson Å, Tompa A, et al. Galectin-1 correlates with inflammatory markers and T regulatory cells in children with type 1 diabetes and/or celiac disease [J]. Clinical and experimental immunology, 2024, 215 (3): 240-250.

[2] Bergman A, Greifer M, Levine J. Concurrent Celiac Disease and Eosinophilic Esophagitis in a Pediatric Cohort: More Than a Coincidence [J]. Clinical pediatrics, 2024, 99228241232876-99228241232876.

[3] Boutrid N, Rahmoune H. Cardiomyopathy, carnitine deficiency, and celiac disease [J]. European Journal of Pediatrics, 2024,

[4] Anderson P R, Verma R, Schumann M. A look into the future: Are we ready for an approved therapy in celiac disease [J]. Gastroenterology, 2024,

[5] Roth B, Ohlsson B. Microscopic colitis found together with celiac disease in a female population is associated with one episode of lymphocytic colitis [J]. BMC gastroenterology, 2024, 24 (1): 70-70.

[6] Roque A, Pereira G S. Bacteria: Potential Make-or-Break Determinants of Celiac Disease [J]. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2024, 25 (4):

[7] Wang Y, Xing S, Zhao X, et al. Unraveling the allosteric mechanisms of prolyl endopeptidases for celiac disease therapy: Insights from molecular dynamics simulations [J]. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2024, 259 (P2): 129313-130012.

[8] Efe A, Tok A. Obsessive-Compulsive Symptomatology and Disgust Propensity in Disordered Eating Behaviors of Adolescents with Celiac Disease [J]. International journal of behavioral medicine, 2024, 31 (1): 85-96.

[9] Lebwohl B. Moving Away from Biopsy Confirmation of Celiac Disease [J]. Gastroenterology, 2024,

[10] Gatti S, Tapia R A, Makharia G, et al. Patient and Community Health Global Burden in a World with more Celiac Disease [J]. Gastroenterology, 2024,

[11] Størdal K, Tapia G, Blix L A N, et al. Genotypes predisposing to celiac disease and autoimmune diabetes and risk of infections in early childhood [J]. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition, 2024, 78 (2): 295-303.

[12] Robert E M, Ciacci C, Lebwohl B. Opportunities for Improving Biopsy and Non-Biopsy-Based Diagnosis of Celiac Disease [J]. Gastroenterology, 2024,

[13] Kurppa K, Mulder C, Stordal K, et al. Celiac disease affects 1% of the global population - who will manage all these patients? What are criteria to prioritize along risk for complications? [J]. Gastroenterology, 2024,

[14] Volta U, Rostami K, Auricchio R, et al. DIAGNOSIS OF SERONEGATIVE AND ULTRASHORT CELIAC DISEASE [J]. Gastroenterology, 2024,

[15] Liu Y, Yao N, Wang Y, et al. The association of gluten-free diet with thyroid autoimmunity in patients with celiac disease: a meta-analysis [J]. Food & function, 2024,

[16] Costa C, Reinas A. Celiac disease presenting as hemorrhagic shock: a rare complication [J]. Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas, 2024,

[17] Gutvirtz G, Pariente G, Wainstock T, et al. 739 Maternal fertility treatments and the risk for celiac disease of the offspring [J]. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2024, 230 (1S): S394-S394.

[18] Arnold J M. Diagnosis and Management of Celiac Disease: Guidelines from the American College of Gastroenterology [J]. American Family Physician, 2024, 109 (1): 92-93.

[19] Fardan A F, Aldebasi H M, AlThekair Y F, et al. Combined Central Retinal Artery Occlusion (CRAO) and Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO) in a Celiac Disease Patient: A Case Report [J]. Cureus, 2024, 16 (1): e51567-e51567.

[20] Atanasova M, Dimitrov I, Fernandez A, et al. Assessment of Novel Proteins Triggering Celiac Disease via Docking-Based Approach [J]. Molecules, 2023, 29 (1):

[21] Isabel H. Current Diagnostic Algorithms May Fail to Identify Black Americans with Celiac Disease [J]. Gastro Hep Advances, 2024, 3 (1): 134-135.

[22] Matěj H, Lubomír J, Michaela Š, et al. Celiac Disease: Promising Biomarkers for Follow-Up [J]. Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases: JGLD, 2023, 32 (4): 536-544.

[23] K C C, Michael L, Suzanne L, et al. Predictors of Subsequent Celiac Disease Seropositivity in Patients Diagnosed with Duodenal Villus Atrophy on Upper Endoscopy [J]. Digestive diseases and sciences, 2023,

[24] Doaa A E, Walid E, Radwa E, et al. Myocardial Function Using Two Dimension Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography in Children with Celiac Disease [J]. European Journal of Pediatrics, 2023,

[25] Kinga S, Szymon H, Francesco T, et al. Genetic, Immunological, Dietary, Gut Microbiota, and Environmental Determinants of Osteoporosis in the Course of Celiac Disease: Which Factor Plays the First Violin in This Orchestra? [J]. Calcified tissue international, 2023,

[26] L. K O, M. M L. Nutrition, and risk of celiac disease – you are what you (wh)eat [J]. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2023, 118 (6): 1071-1072.

[27] Roberto C, Gabriele M, Luca M, et al. Management of a High-Level Breaststroke Swimmer with Celiac Disease: A Case Report [J]. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 2023, 22 (12): 410-413.

[28] Emanuele B, Carlo C. Screening type 1 diabetes and celiac disease by law[J]. The Lancet Diabetes & endocrinology, 2023, 12 (1): 12-14.

[29] Lerner A, Benzvi C, Vojdani A. HLA-DQ2/8 and COVID-19 in Celiac Disease: Boon or Bane [J]. Microorganisms, 2023, 11 (12):

[30] Ehud G, Rayna B, Ido S, et al. Interactions Between Celiac Disease and Pregnancy: Literature Review[J]. The Israel Medical Association journal: IMAJ, 2023, 25 (12): 830-835.

[31] Sekulovska P M, Gulinac M, Rangelov R, et al. Navigating the Challenges of Gluten Enteropathy and Infertility: The Role of Celiac-related Antibodies and Dietary Changes [J]. Antibodies, 2023, 12 (4):

[32] Assia M, Karima R E, Nassiba B, et al. Celiac Disease in Moroccan Children: Diagnostic Characteristics and Determinants of Diagnosis Delay [J]. Cureus, 2023, 15 (12): e50800-e50800.

[33] Aljoharah S A, F Z R. Undiagnosed Celiac Disease Associated with Antiphospholipid Syndrome Causing Infertility and Osteoporosis [J]. Cureus, 2023, 15 (12): e49899-e49899.

[34] Qureshi H M. The Correlation Between Serum Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase (Anti-tTG) Antibody Levels and Histological Severity of Celiac Disease in Adolescents and Adults: A Meta-Analysis [J]. Cureus, 2023, 15 (12): e51169-e51169.

[35] Ghozzi M, Mechi F, Salem B A, et al. Serological screening for celiac disease by endomysial antibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis[J]. Annales de biologie clinique, 2023, 81 (6): 569-575.

[36] Rosemarie S, Fiona L, Angie P. Experiences of Health-Related Stigma and Challenges Faced by Men Living with Celiac Disease: A Qualitative Analysis[J]. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2023,

[37] A I H, A L M H, Seon R C, et al. Symptom Outcomes of Celiac Disease in Those on a Gluten-free Diet [J]. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 2023