Welcome to Francis Academic Press

The Frontiers of Society, Science and Technology, 2020, 2(12); doi: 10.25236/FSST.2020.021216.

A Novel Way for Pilot Decontamination in Massive MIMO Multi-Cell Systems


You Zhou1, ShuyuanShen2, YitongWang3, YaodongCui4

Corresponding Author:
You Zhou

1 Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Wisconsin Madison, WI, United States

2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Jilin University Zhuhai College, Zhuhai, China 3department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai University of 3 Electric Power, Shanghai, China

4 Chien-Shiung Wu College, Southeast University, Nanjing, China


The performance of massive Multi-input Multi-output (MIMO) system is limited by pilot contamination, due to the pilots with similar energy can be received by users at the same time, which brings the difficulty of determining the domain pilot. An effective way to solve this problem in Time Division Duplex (TDD) wireless system is using weighted graph for pilot allocation. However, this method is badly influenced by the number of pilots. In this paper, weighted graph is combined with Soft Pilot Reuse Scheme (SPRS) and cell classification. In order to deal with the influence of too much pilots, SPRS and cell classification will be presented. Program of cell classification will divide cells into two groups and prepare orthogonal pilots to make two groups of cells be orthogonal to each other. For whole users in one cell, they will be divided into edge users and center users by large-scale-fading factor. For center users, edge-weighted interference graph (EWIG) will measure their degrees of affection by pilot contamination and form the weighted graph. After that, the graph will be used as reference to assign pilot. As for edge users in the same category, they will use orthogonal pilots to reduce the pilot contamination. The simulation gives powerful results of the interference rejection and the achievable rate enhancement.


Pilot contamination, Massive MIMO, Cell classification, SPRS, WGC scheme

Cite This Paper

You Zhou, ShuyuanShen, YitongWang, YaodongCui. A Novel Way for Pilot Decontamination in Massive MIMO Multi-Cell Systems. The Frontiers of Society, Science and Technology (2020) Vol. 2 Issue 12: 104-115. https://doi.org/10.25236/FSST.2020.021216.


[1] X. Zhu, L. Dai, Z. Wang, X. Wang (2017). Weighted-Graph-Coloring-Based Pilot Decontamination for Multicell Massive MIMO Systems, inIEEETransactionson Vehicular Technology, vol.66, no.3, pp.2829-2834.

[2] T. Marzetta (2010). Noncooperative cellular wireless with unlimited numbers of base station antennas,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 3590.

[3] F. Rusek et al (2013). Scaling up MIMO: Opportunities and challenges with very large arrays,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 40.

[4] Ali, E., Ismail, M., Nordin, R., Abdulah, N. F (2018). Beamforming with 2D-AOA estimation for pilot contamination reduction in massive MIMO. Telecommunication Systems, vol.71, no.4, pp.541-552. 

[5] Pilot Contamination Reduction by Shifted Frame Structure in Massive MIMO TDD Wireless System YAO Tianqi, LI Yong Research Institute of Post and Telecommunications, Wuhan430074, Hubei, China.

[6] ZHU XDAI LWANG Z (2015). Graph Coloring Based Pilot, Allocation to Mitigate Pilot Contamination for MultiCell Massive MIMO Systems J IEEE Communications Letters, vol.19, no.10, pp.1842-1845.

[7] JOSE JASHIKHMIN AMAZETTA T Let al (2011). Pilot Contamination and Precoding in MultiCell TDD SystemsJ IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol.10, no.8, pp.2640-2651.

[8] YIN HGESBET DFILIPPOU M et al (2013). A Coordinated Approach to Channel Estimation in LargeScale Multiple- Antenna Systems JIEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, no.2, pp. 264-273

[9] (2013). COTTATELLUCCI LMULLE VEHKAPEA MAnalysis of Pilot Decontamination Based on Power Con-trolC/ /Vehicular Technology Conference Dresden: IEEE Press, pp.1-5.

[10] Khanse d, A., Minn, H (2015). On Channel Estimation for Massive MIMO With Pilot Contamination. IEEE Communications Letters, vol.19, no.9, pp.1660-1663.

[11] Hai-rong WANG, Yu-hui WANG,Yong-ming HUANG,  et al (2014). Pilot contamination reduction in very large MIMO cellular network. Journal on Communications, no.1, pp.24-33.

[12] Wu, Yucheng Liu, Tong Cao, Meng Li, Liang Xu, Weiyang (2018). Pilot contamination reduction in massive MIMO systems based on pilot scheduling. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking. 

[13] Ali, E., Ismail, M., Nordin, R., Abdulah, N. F. (2018). Beamforming with 2D-AOA estimation for pilot contamination reduction in massive MIMO. Telecommunication Systems, vol.71, no.4, pp.541-552.

[14] X. Zhu et al (2016). Soft Pilot Reuse and Multicell Block Diagonalization Precoding for Massive MIMO Sys-

[15] Tems. In IEEE Transactions on VehicularTechnology, vol.65, no.5, pp.3285-3298. 

[16] Yuan, W, Yang, X., Xu, R (2018). A Novel Pilot Decontamination Scheme for Uplink Massive MIMO Systems. Procedia Computer Science, pp.131.