Chenglai Ma (Martin)
Harrow International School Beijing, 100102，China
The overall purpose of this paper is to investigate the Enlightenment as a social activity that influenced the illumination system. This study is mainly based on secondary resources, such as “Lighting the Enlightenment: Public Lighting Practices in the Siecle Des Lumieres,” written by Darrin M.McMahon, to develop and make my ideas and thoughts. Moreover, primary resources will be considered to enhance the research. This paper's primary finding is how the Enlightenment influenced and promoted the development of the public lighting system in the streets.
Enlightenment, Europe, Light, Street lighting, Public illumination, Science, Security
Chenglai Ma (Martin). To what extend the Enlightenment as a social activity influenced the illumination system on the public street in Europe. International Journal of New Developments in Engineering and Society (2020) Vol.4, Issue 3: 99-106. https://doi.org/10.25236/IJNDES.040309.
 Voltaire Foundation. 2020. Lighting The Enlightenment. [online] Available at <https://voltairefoundation.wordpress.com/2018/10/23/lighting-the-enlightenment/> [Accessed 30 July 2020].
 McMahon, D., 2018. Illuminating the Enlightenment: Public Lighting Practices in the Siècle des Lumières*. Past & Present, 240(1), pp.119-159.
 Plato.stanford.edu. 2020. Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy. [online] Available at: <https://plato.stanford.edu/> [Accessed 25 August 2020].
 Explorable.com. 2020. Science And The Enlightenment - A Scientific Revolution. [online] Available at: <https://explorable.com/science-and-enlightenment> [Accessed 18 September 2020].
HISTORY. 2020. Enlightenment. [online] Available at: <https://www.history.com/topics/british-history/enlightenment> [Accessed 18 September 2020].
 Multhauf, L., 1985. The Light of Lamp-Lanterns: Street Lighting in 17th-Century Amsterdam. Technology and Culture, 26(2), p.236.
 See Eric Hadley Denton, ‘Goethe’s Mixed Media: The Entertainers in Jahrmarktsfest zu Plundersweilern’, Goethe Yearbook, xiii (2005), 31–50