Welcome to Francis Academic Press

International Journal of New Developments in Engineering and Society, 2019, 3(2); doi: 10.25236/IJNDES.19204.

The Impact of Bantu Migration on Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa


Jia Liu

Corresponding Author:
Jia Liu

College of History, Geography and Tourism, Chengdu Normal University, Chengdu, 611130, China


From the 1st to 19th centuries AD, Bantu migrated in sub-Saharan Africa on three routes: west, East and south, and formed three agricultural economic types. On the western front, after arriving in the Congo Basin, Bantu mainly engaged in simple agricultural economy. On the Eastern Front, Bantu learned animal husbandry from the Nilots and Kushts, and developed a mixed farming and animal husbandry economy. As Bantu continued to migrate southward, they taught the indigenous Koisans how to graze, which directly contributed to the origin of animal husbandry in South Africa. During the thousands of years of Bantu migration, a variety of crops, livestock, agricultural technologies (especially iron farming tools) spread in sub-Saharan Africa, greatly promoting the development of agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa.


Bantu; Migration; Sub-Saharan Africa; Agriculture; Impact

Cite This Paper

Jia Liu. The Impact of Bantu Migration on Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of New Developments in Engineering and Society (2019) Vol.3, Issue 2: 28-34. https://doi.org/10.25236/IJNDES.19204.


[1] Hiernaux J(1968). Bantu Expansion: the Evidence from Physical Anthropology Confronted with Linguistic and Archaeological Evidence . The Journal of African History, vol.9, no.4, pp. 505-515.
[2] Greenberg J H(1972). Linguistic Evidence Regarding Bantu Origins . The Journal of African History, vol.13, no.2, pp. 189-216.
[3] He F.C., Ning S(1995). General History of Africa . Shanghai: East China Normal University Press.
[4] Robert K(1974). History of the Congo (Kinshasa), Vol 1 . Beijing: Commercial Press.
[5] Oliver R(1966). Bantu Genesis: An Inquiry into Some Problems of Early Bantu History . Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, vol. 114, no.5122, pp. 852-868.
[6] Jones W O(1959). Manioc in Africa . California: Stanford University Press, 1959: 16-18.
[7] Vansina J(1984). Western Bantu Expansion . The Journal of African History, vol. 25, no.2, pp. 129-145.
[8] Lu T.E(2000). A Brief History of African Agricultural Development . Beijing: China Financial and Economic Press.
[9]UNESCO(2013). General History of Africa, Vol 4 . Beijing: China Foreign Translation and Publishing Co., Ltd.
[10] James McCann(2001). Maize and Grace: History, Corn, and Africa's New Landscapes, 1500-1999. Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol.43, no.2, pp.246-272.
[11] Blench R, MacDonald K(2000). The Origins and Development of African Livestock: Archaeology, Genetics, Linguistics and Ethnography . New York: UCL Press.
[12] Zheng J. X(2011). Each Place Raising Its Own Civilization . Beijing: People's Publishing House.
[13] Huffman T N(1970). The Early Iron Age and the Spread of the Bantu . The South African Archaeological Bulletin, vol.25, no.97, pp. 3-21.
[14] Engels(1972). The Origin of Family, Private Ownership and State, Selected Works of Marx and Engels, Vol. 4. Beijing: People's Publishing House.
[15] Smith, C. Wayne, and Richard A. Frederiksen, eds(2000). Sorghum: Origin, History, Technology, and Production, Vol. 2 . John Wiley & Sons.
[16] Barker G(2006). The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory: Why did Foragers Become Farmers? . Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[17] Fage, J. D., & Roberts, A. D. eds(1975). The Cambridge History of Africa, Vol.3 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[18] Oliver R(1982). The Nilotic Contribution to Bantu Africa . The Journal of African History, vol.23, no.4, pp. 433-442.