Welcome to Francis Academic Press

Academic Journal of Computing & Information Science, 2023, 6(1); doi: 10.25236/AJCIS.2023.060109.

A Geographic Routing Protocol Based on Node Scoring and Intersection Evaluation


Bing Su, Yiwen Zhang

Corresponding Author:
Yiwen Zhang

School of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, Changzhou University, Changzhou, China


VANET has a good application prospect in the current vehicle communication. As one of MANET, it has the characteristics of dynamic network topology and indirect connection, which makes the wireless connection between nodes unstable. Aiming at this problem, we propose a routing protocol combining link stability, node density and distance scale. When data packets are transmitted to the intersection, the optimal adjacent intersection is selected to determine the forwarding path, which improves the geographical forwarding of data packets located at the intersection. Through simulation, we find that the proposed geographic routing protocol based on node scoring and intersection evaluation (GRNSIE) has good routing performance in PDR and latency when compared with GPSR, GyTAR and GROOV.


Ad hoc network, Vehicle communication, Link stability, Geographic routing

Cite This Paper

Bing Su, Yiwen Zhang. A Geographic Routing Protocol Based on Node Scoring and Intersection Evaluation. Academic Journal of Computing & Information Science (2023), Vol. 6, Issue 1: 57-64. https://doi.org/10.25236/AJCIS.2023.060109.


[1] Yu, H., Liu, R., Li, Z., Ren, Y., & Jiang, H. (2021). An RSU deployment strategy based on traffic demand in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 9(9), 6496-6505.

[2] Wei, Z., Chen, Q., Yang, H., Wu, H., Feng, Z., & Ning, F. (2021). Neighbor Discovery for VANET with Gossip Mechanism and Multi-packet Reception. IEEE Internet of Things Journal.

[3] Arif, M., Wang, G., Bhuiyan, M. Z. A., Wang, T., & Chen, J. (2019). A survey on security attacks in VANETs: Communication, applications and challenges. Vehicular Communications, 19, 100179.

[4] Anbalagan, S., Bashir, A. K., Raja, G., Dhanasekaran, P., Vijayaraghavan, G., Tariq, U., & Guizani, M. (2021). Machine-learning-based efficient and secure RSU placement mechanism for software-defined-IoV. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 8(18), 13950-13957.

[5] Zhang, W., Xiao, X., Wang, J., & Lu, P. (2018, November). An improved AODV routing protocol based on social relationship mining for VANET. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Communication and Information Processing (pp. 217-221).

[6] Istikmal. (2013). Analysis And Evaluation Optimization Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol in Mobile Adhoc Network Based on Ant Algorithm. In International Conference of Information and Communication Technology (pp. 400-404).

[7] Boushaba, A., Benabbou, A., Benabbou, R., Zahi, A., & Oumsis, M. (2015). Multi-point relay selection strategies to reduce topology control traffic for OLSR protocol in MANETs. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 53, 91-102.

[8] Luo, L., Sheng, L., Yu, H., & Sun, G. (2021). Intersection-based V2X routing via reinforcement learning in vehicular Ad Hoc networks. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems.

[9] Huang, H., Yin, H., Min, G., Zhang, J., Wu, Y., & Zhang, X. (2017). Energy-aware dual-path geographic routing to bypass routing holes in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 17(6), 1339-1352.

[10] Chen, Q., Kanhere, S. S., & Hassan, M. (2012). Adaptive position update for geographic routing in mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 12(3), 489-501.

[11] Karp, B., & Kung, H. T. (2000, August). GPSR: Greedy perimeter stateless routing for wireless networks. In Proceedings of the 6th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking (pp. 243-254).

[12] Nguyen, K. V., Le Nguyen, P., Vu, Q. H., & Van Do, T. (2017). An energy efficient and load balanced distributed routing scheme for wireless sensor networks with holes. Journal of Systems and Software, 123, 92-105.

[13] Hadikhani, P., Eslaminejad, M., Yari, M., & Ashoor Mahani, E. (2020). An energy-aware and load balanced distributed geographic routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks with dynamic hole. Wireless Networks, 26(1), 507-519.

[14] Dhurandher, S. K., Obaidat, M. S., Bhardwaj, D., & Garg, A. (2012, December). GROOV: A geographic routing over VANETs and its performance evaluation. In 2012 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) (pp. 1670-1675). IEEE.

[15] Jerbi, M., Senouci, S. M., Meraihi, R., & Ghamri-Doudane, Y. (2007, June). An improved vehicular ad hoc routing protocol for city environments. In 2007 IEEE International Conference on Communications (pp. 3972-3979). IEEE.

[16] Goudarzi, F., Asgari, H., & Al-Raweshidy, H. S. (2018). Traffic-aware VANET routing for city environments—A protocol based on ant colony optimization. IEEE Systems Journal, 13(1), 571-581.

[17] Sun, G., Zhang, Y., Yu, H., Du, X., & Guizani, M. (2019). Intersection fog-based distributed routing for V2V communication in urban vehicular ad hoc networks. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 21(6), 2409-2426.

[18] Xiang, Y., Liu, Z., Liu, R., Sun, W., & Wang, W. (2013). GeoSVR: A map-based stateless VANET routing. Ad Hoc Networks, 11(7), 2125-2135.

[19] Qureshi, K. N., Abdullah, A. H., & Lloret, J. (2016). Road perception based geographical routing protocol for vehicular ad hoc networks. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 12(2), 2617480.