Welcome to Francis Academic Press

International Journal of Frontiers in Medicine, 2023, 5(1); doi: 10.25236/IJFM.2023.050114.

Research progress on CBCT of temporomandibular joint morphology in children with malocclusion in mixed dentition


Munire Tuerxun1, Yinghao Jing1, Yishan Liu1,2

Corresponding Author:
Yishan Liu

1Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Preventive Dentistry, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, School/Hospital of Stomatology, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, 830054, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

2Stomatological Research Institute of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Urumqi, 830054, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China


Malocclusion is an abnormal development and deformity of maxillofacial structure caused by congenital factors or acquired factors. The morphology and structure of the temporomandibular joint with various malocclusion deformities have their own characteristics, which can seriously affect the physical and mental health of children. With the continuous development of society and economy and the gradual improvement of people's living standard, malocclusion malocclusion in children during dental replacement period has received more attention. CBCT is one of the important imaging methods to examine the morphology and structure of temporomandibular joint. In order to intervene early in children with malocclusion during mixed dentition and to understand the morphological and structural characteristics of temporomandibular joint, imaging is used to review the morphological and structural characteristics and differences of temporomandibular joint in children with different types of malocclusion during in mixed dentition.


mixed dentition, malocclusion, temporomandibular joint, CBCT

Cite This Paper

Munire Tuerxun, Yinghao Jing, Yishan Liu. Research progress on CBCT of temporomandibular joint morphology in children with malocclusion in mixed dentition. International Journal of Frontiers in Medicine (2023), Vol. 5, Issue 1: 77-82. https://doi.org/10.25236/IJFM.2023.050114.


[1] Zhao Zhihe. Orthodontics [M]. People's Medical Publishing House, 2020:1-3.

[2] Akbari M, Lankarani K.B, HONARVAR B, et al. Prevalence of malocclusion among Iranian children: A systematic review and meta-analysis[J]. Dent Res J (Isfahan), 2016,13(5): 387-395.

[3] PERILLO L, ESPOSITO M, CAPRIOGLIO A, et al. Orthodontic treatment need for adolescents in the Campania region: the malocclusion impact on self-concept[J]. PATIENT PREFERENCE AND ADHERENCE, 2014,8: 353-359.

[4] DUTRA S R, PRETTI H, MARTINS M T, et al. Impact of malocclusion on the quality of life of children aged 8 to 10 years[J]. Dental Press J Orthod, 2018,23(2): 46-53.

[5] GRANJA G L, BERNARDINO V, LIMA L, et al. Orofacial dysfunction, nonnutritive sucking habits, and dental caries influence malocclusion in children aged 8-10 years[J]. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2022,162(4): 502-509.

[6] Alvarado K, Lopez L, Hanke R, et al. Prevalence of Malocclusion and Distribution of Occlusal Characteristics in 13to 18-year-old Adolescents Attending Selected High Schools in the Municipality of San Juan, PR (2012-2013)[J]. P R Health Sci J.2017 Jun;36(2):61-66.

[7] LOMBARDO G, VENA F, NEGRI P, et al. Worldwide prevalence of malocclusion in the different stages of dentition: A systematic review and meta-analysis[J]. Eur J Paediatr Dent, 2020,21(2): 115-122.

[8] VEDOVELLO S A, AMBROSANO G M, PEREIRA A C, et al. Association between malocclusion and the contextual factors of quality of life and socioeconomic status[J]. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2016,150(1): 58-63.

[9] Haghnegahdar A, Tadayon Mi Dehghani A, Khojastepour L. Temporomandibular joint subluxation prevalence and related factors in Shiraz students. j Mashhad Dent Sch/. 2015,39(4) 323-334.

[10] PARK I Y, KIM J H, PARK Y H. Three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography based comparison of condylar position and morphology according to the vertical skeletal pattern[J]. KOREAN JOURNAL OF ORTHODONTICS, 2015,45(2): 66-73.

[11] CAO H L, KANG M H, LEE J Y, et al. Quantification of three-dimensional facial asymmetry for diagnosis and postoperative evaluation of orthognathic surgery[J]. Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg, 2020,42(1): 17.

[12] RAZUMILAVA N, GORES G J. Cholangiocarcinoma[J]. Lancet, 2014,383(9935): 2168-2179.

[13] Li Chen, Li Yonggang, Feng Xue. Three-dimensional study on the skeletal structure of temporomandibular joint in Class II high Angle adult women [J]. Journal of Practical Stomatology, 2016,32(02): 239-243.

[14] AL-RAWI N H, UTHMAN A T, SODEIFY S M. Spatial analysis of mandibular condyles in patients with temporomandibular disorders and normal controls using cone beam computed tomography[J]. Eur J Dent, 2017,11(1): 99-105.

[15] Zhao Weiping, Lei Xianhui, Li Lu. Morphological Characteristics of the temporomandibular joint in different sagittal skeletal patterns in early permanent dentition [J]. Chinese and Foreign Medical Research, 2018,16(11): 27-29.

[16] XIE Q Y, YANG C, HE D M, et al. Will unilateral temporomandibular joint anterior disc displacement in teenagers lead to asymmetry of condyle and mandible? A longitudinal study[J]. JOURNAL OF CRANIO-MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY, 2016,44(5): 590-596.

[17] ELFEKY H Y, FAYED M S, ALHAMMADI M S, et al. Three-dimensional skeletal, dentoalveolar and temporomandibular joint changes produced by Twin Block functional appliance[J]. J Orofac Orthop, 2018,79(4): 245-258.

[18] GUVEN O, TOZOGLU S, TEKIN U, et al. Relationship between activity of gluthatione peroxidase and nitric oxide in synovial fluid and the progression of temporomandibular joint internal derangement [J]. J Craniofac Surg, 2015,26(3): e210-e213.

[19] SCHNABL D, ROTTLER A K, SCHUPP W, et al. CBCT and MRT imaging in patients clinically diagnosed with temporomandibular joint arthralgia [J]. Heliyon, 2018,4(6): e641.

[20] NAKAJIMA A, SAMESHIMA G T, ARAI Y, et al. Two- and three-dimensional orthodontic imaging using limited cone beam-computed tomography [J]. Angle Orthod, 2005,75(6): 895-903.

[21] Lascala C A, Panella J, Marques M M. Analysis of the accuracy of linear measurements obtained by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT-NewTom)[J]. Dentomaxillofac Radiol, 2004,33(5): 291-294.

[22] PAKNAHAD M, SHAHIDI S, AKHLAGHIAN M, et al. Is Mandibular Fossa Morphology and Articular Eminence Inclination Associated with Temporomandibular Dysfunction?[J]. J Dent (Shiraz), 2016,17(2): 134-141.

[23] Lin M, Xu Y, Wu H,et al. Comparative cone-beam computedtomography evaluation of temporomandibular joint position andmorphology in female patients with skeletal class ll malocclusion[J]. J Int Med Res, 2019, 48(2).

[24] NOH K J, BAIK H S, HAN S S, et al. Differences in mandibular condyle and glenoid fossa morphology in relation to vertical and sagittal skeletal patterns: A cone-beam computed tomography study [J]. Korean J Orthod, 2021, 51(2): 126-134.

[25] RODRIGUES A F, FRAGA M R, VITRAL R W. Computed tomography evaluation of the temporomandibular joint in Class I malocclusion patients: condylar symmetry and condyle-fossa relationship [J]. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2009, 136(2): 192-198.

[26] Du Lingchen, Zhao Qiang, Tian Meiyu, et al. Comparative study of condylar position in different sagittal skeletal patterns by cone-beam CT [J]. West China Journal of Stomatology, 2014, 32(04): 382-385.

[27] HARALUR S B, ADDAS M K, OTHMAN H I, et al. Prevalence of malocclusion, its association with occlusal interferences and temporomandibular disorders among the Saudi sub-population[J]. Oral Health Dent Manag, 2014, 13(2): 164-169.

[28] QIN Jinwei, Zhang Jinglu, Qin Yan, et al. Analysis of the treatment effect of plane guide appliance in Class II division 2 malocclusion patients with temporomandibular disorders [J]. Stomatology, 2015, 35(9) :744-746.

[29] ZUAITER S, ROBIN O, GEBEILE-CHAUTY S, et al. [Does dental class II division 2 predispose to temporomandibular disorders?][J]. Orthod Fr, 2013, 84(3): 277-285.

[30] Wang Yu, Du Yuehua, Qin Pu. Study on the position of temporomandibular joint in Class Ⅱ division 2 malocclusion by cone-beam CT [J]. Chongqing Med, 2014,43(17): 2119-2120.

[31] Gu Yong-jia, LU Sheng-nan, GAO Mei-qin, et al. A comparison of condylar position between Angle Class I and II malocclusion in adolescents [J]. Shanghai Stomatology, 2016,25 (6): 694-696.

[32] Zhang Bin, Zhang Guirong, Bai Yunlong. Changes of condylar position in Class II grade 2 patients before and after orthodontic treatment using cone-beam CT [J]. Chin J Med, 2017,45(11) :1178-1179.

[33] Koide D, Yamada K, Yamaguchi A, et al. Morphological changes in the temporomandibular joint after orthodontic treatment for Angle Class I maloeclusion[ J]. Cranio,2017,36(1):1-9. 

[34] Gao Yongshuai, Song Yan, Xu Xin, et al. CBCT study of condylar symmetry and position in Anglell1s patients at different ages [J]. Journal of General Stomatology, 2018,5(22): 113-114.

[35] Zhou Jing, Liu Yi. Measurement and analysis of temporomandibular joint in skeletal Class Ⅱ adolescent girls with different vertical facial patterns using cone-beam CT [J]. Journal of Peking University (Medical Edition), 2021,53(01): 109-119.

[36] XIE Q, YANG C, HE D, et al. Will unilateral temporomandibular joint anterior disc displacement in teenagers lead to asymmetry of condyle and mandible? A longitudinal study[J]. J Craniomaxillofac Surg, 2016,44(5): 590-596.

[37] Sun Jing-lu, REN Shao-chun, Li Hong-fa. Comparative analysis of temporomandibular joint CBCT between early and peak growth periods of Class Ⅲ malocclusion [J]. Beijing Stomatology, 2018,26(01): 23-27.

[38] Yao X D, FAN S Q, An G, et al. Measurement and analysis of temporomandibular joint bone structure [J]. J Practical Stomatology, 2011,27(06): 801-804.

[39] Yuan Fang-lian, Liu Zhi-jie, Chen Li-Yan et al. A comparative analysis of CBCT images of the temporomandibular joint in individual normal skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion [J]. Stomatology, 2017, 37(8) : 707-711.

[40] NAVALLAS M, INAREJOS E J, IGLESIAS E, et al. MR Imaging of the Temporomandibular Joint in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Technique and Findings [J]. Radiographics, 2017, 37(2): 595-612.