Welcome to Francis Academic Press

International Journal of Frontiers in Medicine, 2023, 5(3); doi: 10.25236/IJFM.2023.050304.

Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Extract of Spatholobi Caulis and Its Ameliorative Effect on CCl4 Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice


Tao Jiang1,2, Weixing Lei1,2, Nan Ling1,2, Shuting Yang1,2, Faen An1,2, Guiping Pang1,2, Yuetao Huang1,2, Kunhua Wei3, Meizhou Shen1,2, Qiming Yu1,2

Corresponding Author:
Qiming Yu

1School of Public Health, Guilin Medical University, Guilin, China

2Guangxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Exposureomics and Entire Lifecycle Health, Guilin Medical University, Guilin, China

3Guangxi Key Laboratory of Conservation and Genetic Improvement of Medicinal Resources, Guangxi Medicinal Botanical Garden, Nanning, China


The acute liver injury model of mice induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was used to explore the protective effect of aqueous extract of Spatholobi Caulis on acute liver injury. Methods: The contents of total phenols and total flavonoids in the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Caulis spatholobi were determined, and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, ABTS free radical scavenging rate and FRAP total reducing capacity. 30 C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into model group, bifendate group, the low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose groups of aqueous extract of Spatholobi Caulis (n = 6). The animal model of acute liver injury was established by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 after 7 days with corresponding drugs. The pathological changes of liver tissue were observed by H&E staining. Serum levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were determined by ELISA. The indexes of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and antioxidant effects of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined. Results: Liver histomorphology observation showed that aqueous extract of Spatholobi Caulis could significantly improve liver cell injury and inflammatory cell infiltration, and significantly increased the activities of CAT, SOD and GSH-Px antioxidant enzymes in liver, decreased the contents of MDA and ALT and AST in serum, significantly down-regulated the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in serum, and up-regulated the levels of IL-10 and other inflammatory factors. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of Spatholobi Caulis can improve acute liver injury induced by CCl4 in mice through improving antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.


Spatholobi Caulis, Aqueous extract, Acute liver injury, CCl4

Cite This Paper

Tao Jiang, Weixing Lei, Nan Ling, Shuting Yang, Faen An, Guiping Pang, Yuetao Huang, Kunhua Wei, Meizhou Shen, Qiming Yu. Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Extract of Spatholobi Caulis and Its Ameliorative Effect on CCl4 Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice. International Journal of Frontiers in Medicine (2023), Vol. 5, Issue 3: 20-27. https://doi.org/10.25236/IJFM.2023.050304.


[1] Tee J K, Peng F, Ho H K. Effects of inorganic nanoparticles on liver fibrosis: Optimizing a double-edged sword for therapeutics [J]. Biochem Pharmacol, 2019, 160(9):24-33.

[2] Wu Y, He Y, Wang R, et al. Preventive Effect of Flavonoid Extract from the Peel of Gonggan (Citrus reticulata Blanco Var. Gonggan) on CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice [J]. J Inflamm Res, 2021, 14(19):5111-5121.

[3] Asrani S K, Devarbhavi H, Eaton J, et al. Burden of liver diseases in the world [J]. Journal of Hepatology, 2019, 70(1):151-171.

[4] Xie S Z, Zhai X Y, Xi S Y, et al. The Protective Effects of Zornia diphylla (L)Pers. Against Acute Liver Injury Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Mice [J]. Front Pharmacol, 2021, 12(42):76-82.

[5] Zhang Y, Jiang ZZ, Zhang LY, et al. Ameliorating effect of psoralen on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice [J]. Journal of China Pharmaceutical University, 2021, 52(05):596-602.

[6] Liu XY, Xu W, Yang XW, et al. Isolation and identification of flavonoids from Spatholobi Caulis [J]. Journal of Chinese Traditional Medicine, 2020, 45(06):1384-1392.

[7] Fu Y, Cheng Y, Chen JP, et al. Research progress on chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Spatholobi Caulis [J]. Chinese herbal medicine, 2011, 42(06):1229-1234.

[8] Kang ZC, Liu SH, Gao C, et al. Protective effect and mechanism of total flavonoids from Spatholobi Caulis on alcoholic liver injury [J]. Chinese Journal of Gerontology, 2013, 33(23):5951-5953.

[9] Chen HL, Meng SN, Zhao WD, et al. Regulation of oxidative stress of RAW264.7 immune cells stimulated by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by the ethyl acetate extract of total flavonoids from Spatholobi Caulis [J]. Jiangsu agricultural Sciences, 2017, 45(08):154-156.

[10] Kwon K R, Alam M B, Park J H, et al. Attenuation of UVB-Induced Photo-Aging by Polyphenolic-Rich Spatholobus Suberectus Stem Extract Via Modulation of MAPK/AP-1/MMPs Signaling in Human Keratinocytes [J]. Nutrients, 2019, 11(6):232-247.

[11] Owumi S E, Ajijola I J, Agbeti O M. Hepatorenal protective effects of protocatechuic acid in rats administered with anticancer drug methotrexate [J]. Hum Exp Toxicol, 2019, 38(11):1254-1265.

[12] Gao Z, Yuan F, Li H, et al. The ameliorations of Ganoderma applanatum residue polysaccharides against CCl4 induced liver injury [J]. Int J Biol Macromol, 2019, 137(11):1130-1140.

[13] Hao W, Wang L, Huang JQ, et al. Research progress on anti - depression mechanism of Jingfang and its common flavonoids [J]. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2022, 36(20):1-29.

[14] Zhao J, Hu H, Wan Y, et al. Pien Tze Huang Gan Bao ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury,oxidative stress and inflammation in rats [J]. Exp Ther Med, 2017, 13(5):1820-1826.

[15] Fu ML, Jiu H, Yuan YF, et al. Protective effect of total flavone of Herbaceous herb on acute chemical liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice [J]. Modern food science and technology, 2021, 37(06):50-56.

[16] Pengkumsri N, Kaewdoo K, Leeprechanon W, et al. Influence of extraction methods on total phenolic content and antioxidant properties of some of the commonly used plants in Thailand [J]. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 2019, 22(3):117-126.

[17] Moreno M I N, Isia M I, Sampietro A R, et al. Comparison of the free radical-scavenging activity of Propolis from several regions of Argentina [J]. Journal of Ethnopharma cology, 2000, 71(1):109-114.

[18] Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, et al. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS+ radical cation decolorization assay [J]. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 1999, 26(9):1231-1237.

[19] Blois M S. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical [J]. Nature, 1958, 181(7):1199-1200.

[20] Benzie I F F, Strain J J. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power": The FRAP assay [J]. Analytical Biochemistry, 1996, 239(1):70-76.

[21] Crismale J F, S L Riedman. Acute Liver Injury and Decompensated Cirrhosis [J]. Med Clin North Am, 2020, 104(4):647-662.

[22] Tan Y, Kim J, Cheng J, et al. Green tea polyphenols ameliorate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through upregulating AMPK activation in high fat fed Zucker fatty rats [J]. World J Gastroenterol, 2017, 23(21):3805-3814.

[23] Gong QM, Liu YS, Yuan HL, et al. Effect of allicin on acute liver injury induced by CCl4 in mice [J]. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University, 2022, 43(22):1-10.

[24] Mostafa-Hedeab G, Ewaiss Hassan M, F Halawa T, et al. Epigallocatechin gallate ameliorates tetrahydrochloride-induced liver toxicity in rats via inhibition of TGFbeta p-ERKp-Smad12 signaling,antioxidant,anti-inflammatory activity [J]. Saudi Pharm J, 2022, 30(9):1293-1300.

[25] Gao Z, Yuan F, Li H, et al. The ameliorations of Ganoderma applanatum residue polysaccharides against CCl4 induced liver injury [J]. Int J Biol Macromol, 2019, 137(13):1130-1140.

[26] Albrahim T, A Alonazi M. Lycopene corrects metabolic syndrome and liver injury induced by high fat diet in obese rats through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic pathways [J]. Biomed Pharmacother, 2021, 141(11):18-31.

[27] Cai WZ, Zhang TQ, Wang QH, et al. Preventive effect of sea cucumber Cooking liquid dry powder on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice [J]. Chinese Journal of Food Science, 2022, 22(07):115-122.

[28] Zhi Y, Song YA, Zhang M, et al. Pharmacological effect of carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in mice [J]. Journal of Chinese Traditional Medicine, 2022, 40(01):107-109.

[29] Vuda M, Dsouza R, Upadhya S, et al. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Hybanthus enneaspermus against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats [J]. Exp Toxicol Pathol, 2012, 64(7-8):855-859.

[30] Birben E, Sahiner U M, Sackesen C, et al. Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense [J]. World Allergy Organ J, 2012, 5(1):9-19.

[31] Xu N, Gao Z, Zhang J, et al. Hepatoprotection of enzymatic-extractable mycelia zinc polysaccharides by Pleurotus eryngii var [J]. tuoliensis.Carbohydr Polym, 2017, 157(6):196-206.

[32] Cemek M, Aymelek F, Karaca T, et al. Protective potential of Royal Jelly against carbon tetrachloride induced-toxicity and changes in the serum sialic acid levels [J]. Food Chem Toxicol, 2010, 48(10): 2827-2832.

[33] Morry J, W Ngamcherdtrakul, W Yantasee. Oxidative stress in cancer and fibrosis: Opportunity for therapeutic intervention with antioxidant compounds, enzymes, and nanoparticles [J]. Redox Biol, 2017, 11(9):240-253.

[34] Tasnim F, Xing J, Huang X, et al. Generation of mature kupffer cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells [J]. Biomaterials, 2019, 192(4):337-391.

[35] Sato A, Nakashima H, Nakashima M, et al. Involvement of the TNF and FasL produced by CD11b Kupffer cellsmacrophages in CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury [J]. PLoS One, 2014, 9(3):15-25.

[36] Negash A A, Ramos H, Crochet N, et al. IL-1β production through the NLRP3 inflammasome by hepatic macrophages links hepatitis C virus infection with liver inflammation and disease [J]. PLoS Pathog, 2013, 9(4):103-130.

[37] Yu HH, Qiu YX, Li B, et al. Kadsura heteroclita stem ethanol extract protects against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in mice via suppression of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis [J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2021, 267(8):324-336.