School of Education, Capital Normal University, Haidian, Beijing, China
Higher-order thinking is a complex form of cognition that occurs within specific contexts, involving a series of cognitive abilities such as analysis, creativity, synthesis, establishing relationships, and metacognition. It requires students to apply their existing knowledge and skills in advanced cognitive activities such as reasoning, judgment, evaluation, creativity, and problem-solving. Importantly, higher-order thinking can be nurtured and developed. Empirical research has revealed that as primary and secondary school teachers, one can enhance students' higher-order thinking abilities by providing challenging open-ended questions and projects, encouraging students to raise questions and explore, promoting group discussions and collaborative learning, and guiding students in metacognition and reflection. These strategies contribute to improving students' higher-order thinking skills and fostering continuous academic growth.
higher-order thinking; open-ended questions; cooperative learning
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