Welcome to Francis Academic Press

Frontiers in Educational Research, 2023, 6(20); doi: 10.25236/FER.2023.062021.

Chinese College Students’ English Writing Self-efficacy and Writing Self-regulated Strategies


Huaimei Jin

Corresponding Author:
Huaimei Jin

School of Foreign Studies, Anhui Xinhua University, Hefei, Anhui, China


This study aims to determine English writing self-efficacy and writing self-regulated strategies among Chinese non-English majors. Online surveys were conducted and a total of 409 freshmen and sophomores from Anhui Xinhua University of China were involved in the study and answered the adopted online questionnaires. The descriptive statistics analysis and correlation analysis were conducted with SPSS after the data collected. The results showed that the respondents reported a quite low level of self-efficacy and infrequent use of self-regulated strategies in their English writing. Additionally, writing self-efficacy had highly significant relationship with writing self-regulated strategies. The present study facilitates understanding of the interplay of these two factors and sheds light on enhancing Chinese college students’ writing proficiency by boosting their writing self-efficacy and writing self-regulated strategies.


Writing Self-Efficacy, Writing Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, Chinese College Students

Cite This Paper

Huaimei Jin. Chinese College Students’ English Writing Self-efficacy and Writing Self-regulated Strategies. Frontiers in Educational Research (2023) Vol. 6, Issue 20: 129-137. https://doi.org/10.25236/FER.2023.062021.


[1] Ablard, K. E., & Lipschultz, R. E. (1998). Self-Regulated Learning in High-Achieving Students: Relations to Advanced Reasoning, Achievement Goals, and Gender. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 94–101.

[2] Bai, B., & Guo, W. (2018). Influences of Self-Regulated Learning Strategy Use on Self-Efficacy in Primary School Students’ English Writing in Hong Kong. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 34(6), 523–536.

[3] Bai, B., Shen, B., & Mei, H. (2020). Hong Kong primary students’ self-regulated writing strategy use: Influences of gender, writing proficiency, and grade level. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 65, 56-66.

[4] Bai, B., Wang, J., & Nie, Y. Y. (2021). Self-efficacy, task values and growth mindset: what has the most predictive power for primary school students’ self-regulated learning in English writing and writing competence in an Asian Confucian cultural context? Cambridge Journal of Education, 51(1), 65–84. 

[5] Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman. 

[6] Chen, S. B. (2011). The Cultivation of self-regulation strategies in English Writing: An empirical study on improving college students’ writing Self-efficacy. Master thesis. Shanghai: East China University of Science and Technology.

[7] Cui, W. W. (2016). The effect of peer evaluation on self-efficacy. Master thesis. Beijing: Beijing Foreign Studies University. 

[8] Ekholm, E., Zumbrunn, S., & Conklin, S. (2015). The relation of college student self-efficacy toward writing and writing self-regulation aptitude: Writing feedback perceptions as a mediating variable. Teaching in Higher Education, 20(2), 197–207.

[9] Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (1989). Components analysis of cognitive strategy instruction: Effects on learning disabled students' compositions and self-efficacy. Journal of educational Psychology, 81(3), 353.

[10] Graham, S., Harris, K. R., & Beard, K. (2019). Teaching writing to young African American male students using evidence-based practices. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 35(1), 19-29.

[11] Gu S. M. & Li L. P. (2018). An Empirical Study on the Correlation between Junior Middle School Students’ English Writing Strategies and Their Writing Self-Efficacy. Computer Assisted Foreign Language Education, 180 (4), 25-90.

[12] Guo, J. D. (2018). Effect of EFL Writing Self-concept and Self-efficacy on Writing Performance: Mediating Role of Writing Anxiety. Foreign Language Research, 201(2), 69-74.

[13] Jones, E. (2008). Predicting performance in first-semester college basic writers: Revisiting the role of self-beliefs. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(2), 209-238.

[14] Kirmizi, O., Kirmizi, G. D. (2015). An investigation of L2 learner’s writing self-efficacy, writing anxiety and its causes at higher education in Turkey. International Journal of Higher Education, 4(2), 57-66.

[15] Lavelle, E., & Guarino, A. J. (2003). A multidimensional approach to understanding college writing processes. Educational Psychology, 23(3), 295-305.

[16] Leins, P. A., Cuenca-Carlino, Y., Kiuhara, S. A., & Jacobson, L. T. (2017). The flexibility of self regulated strategy development for teaching argumentative text. Intervention in School and Clinic, 53(2), 81-87. 

[17] Li, H. (2014). Construction of EFL Writing Self-efficacy Scale for Chinese College Students. Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 36(12), 70-76.

[18] Li, H. (2017). The influence of self-efficacy in English writing on the writing performance of non-English major college students. Foreign language teaching theory and practice, 3, 57-63+79.

[19] Li, H. & Liu, R. D. (2013). The relationship between foreign language writing anxiety and writing self-efficacy of college students and its prediction on Writing Performance. Foreign language studies, 2, 48-54.

[20] Liang, F., & Turner, J. E. (2021). Writing Anxiety among Chinese Graduate Students in an American Educational Setting. Journal of Ethnographic & Qualitative Research, 16(2), 139–158.

[21] Lin, L. & Yang, Y. X. (2022). An empirical study on the effect of teacher-student collaborative assessment on college students’ English writing self-efficacy. Foreign Language Education in China, 5(4), 18-26+91.

[22] McCarthy, P., Meier, S., & Rinderer, R. (1985). Self-Efficacy and Writing: A Different View of Self-Evaluation. College Composition and Communication, 36(4), 465–471.

[23] Mendoza, L. et. al. (2022). Exploring First-year University Students’ Learning Journals: Conceptions of Second Language Self-concept and Self-efficacy for Academic Writing. System, 106(1), 1-12.

[24] Pajares, F. (2003). Self-efficacy beliefs, motivation, and achievement in writing: A review of the literature. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 19(2), 139-158.

[25] Pajares, F. (1997). Current directions in self-efficacy research. Advances in motivation and achievement, 10(149), 1-49.

[26] Pajares, F., & Valiante, G. (1997). Influence of self-efficacy on elementary students' writing. The Journal of Educational Research, 90(6), 353-360.

[27] Pajares, F., & Johnson, M. J. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in the writing of high school students: A path analysis. Psychology in the Schools, 33, 163-175.

[28] Rosalia, C.(2014). Fostering Self-Regulated Learning Feedback-on-Feedback in a Peer Online Writing Center. Writing & Pedagogy, 6, 399-429.

[29] Sala-Bubare, A. & Castello, M. (2017). Writing regulation processes in higher education: a review of two decades of empirical research. Springer Science+Business Media B.V, 12, 2-17.

[30] Schunk, D. H., & Swartz, C. W. (1993). Goals and progress feedback: Effects on self-efficacy and writing achievement. Contemporary educational psychology, 18(3), 337-354.

[31] Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2007). Influencing children's self-efficacy and self-regulation of reading and writing through modeling. Reading & writing quarterly, 23(1), 7-25.

[32] Seker, M. (2015). The use of self-regulation strategies by foreign language learners and its role in language achievement. Language and Teaching Research, 8, 3-16.

[33] Shell, D. F., Colvin, C., & Bruning, R. H. (1995). Self-effificacy, attribution, and outcome expectancy mechanisms in reading and writing achievement: Grade level and achievement-level differences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 386-398. 

[34] Shell, D. F., Murphy, C. C., & Bruning, R. H. (1989). Self-efficacy and outcome expectancy mechanisms in reading and writing achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 91-100. 

[35] Stewart, G., Seifert, T. A., & Rolheiser, C. (2015). Anxiety and self-efficacy’s relationships with undergraduate students’ perceptions of the use of metacognitive writing strategies. The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 6(1), 1-18.

[36] Sun, T., & Wang, C. (2020). College students’ writing self-efficacy and writing self-regulated learning strategies in learning English as a foreign language. System, 90, 302-312.

[37] Tang, F. & Xu, J. F. (2011). A survey and research on self-efficacy in College English Writing. Foreign Language World, 6, 22-29.

[38] Takarroucht, K. (2022). The Effect of Self-Assessment on the Development of EFL Writing Self-Efficacy: A Case of Algerian Higher Education. International Journal of Language Education, 6(2), 157–168.

[39] Teng, L. S. (2021). Individual differences in self-regulated learning: Exploring the nexus of motivational beliefs, self-efficacy, and SRL strategies in EFL writing. Language Teaching Research, Online First. 1–23.

[40] Teng, F. & Huang, J. (2019). Predictive Effects of Writing Strategies for Self-Regulated Learning on Secondary School Learners’ EFL Writing Proficiency. TESOL Quarterly, 53(1), 232–247.

[41] Teng, L.S. (2022). Explicit strategy-based instruction in L2 writing contexts: A perspective of self-regulated learning and formative assessment. Assessing Writing, 53, 67-81.

[42] Varier, D., Zumbrunn, S., Conklin, S., Marrs, S., Stringer, J. K., & Furman, J. (2021). Getting stuck in writing: exploring elementary students’ writing self-regulation strategies. Educational Studies, 47(6), 680-699. 

[43] Wang, Y. X. (2020). A Correlation Study on Motivational Regulation Strategies, Self-regulated Learning Strategies of English Writing and Writing Performance. Master thesis. Huhehaote: Inner Mongolia Normal University.

[44] Wei, Y. (2019). A study on the correlation between English writing level and self-regulation Learning strategies of senior high school students. Master thesis. Kunming: Yunnan Normal University.

[45] Woodrow, L. (2011). College English writing affect: Self-efficacy and anxiety. System, 39, 510-522. 

[46] Wu, Y. H. (2013). The effect of Peer Evaluation on Self-efficacy: An empirical study based on College English writing. Shandong Foreign Languages Teaching Journal, 6, 68-72.

[47] Xiao, Y., & Yang, M. (2019). Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: How formative assessment supports students’ self-regulation in English language learning. System, 81, 39–49.

[48] Yan, R. & Zhang, L. (2015). The effects of task complexity, task difficulty and self-efficacy on foreign language writing. Foreign Language World, 1, 40-47+72.

[49] Yang, L., & Chen, R. (2012). The Effects of Positive Self-evaluation on Senior High School Students’ English Writing Performance and Writing Self-efficacy. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, 35(3), 271–286.

[50] Yang, X.Q. & Dai, Y. C. (2015). An Empirical Study on College English Autonomous Writing Teaching Model Based on www.pigai. org. Media in Foreign Language Instruction, 2, 17-23.

[51] Zimmerman, B. J., & Bandura, A. (1994). Impact of self-regulatory influences on writing course attainment. American Educational Research Journal, 31, 845-862.

[52] Zimmerman, B., & Risemberg, R. (1997). Becoming a self-regulated writer: A social cognitive perspective. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22(1), 73-101.