Institute of Foreign Language and Literature, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot, China
Since the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, great changes have taken place in American society. Agricultural cities began to transform into industrial cities, and people changed the original mode of production and engaged in work in the industrial society. This shift particularly pronounced in small towns in the Midwest and South. Compared with the rapid transformation of metropolitans, small town’s life retained a large degree of agricultural lifestyles and habits. This paper takes two books, Winesbung, Ohio and The Ballad of the Sad Cafe which were written in the period of the industrial society as examples, and focuses on small towns in the Midwest and South of the United States to express emotion changing in the process of transformation. Emotions have changed from the explicit emotions in the romantic period to the hidden and alienated emotions in the industrial society. With the influence of modernity, loneliness of people becomes increasingly obvious, which leads to madness and carnivalization. However, these emotions are eventually repressed at last. This paper precisely confirms difficult states of loneliness people in modern industrialized society and also provides reference for the state of loneliness and alienation in current world.
Winesbung, Ohio; The Ballad of the Sad Cafe; Loneliness; Emotion study
Duan Yiqi. Unsaid Loneliness: The Study on Alienated Emotions of Winesbung, Ohio and The Ballad of the Sad Cafe during the American Industrial Transformation. Academic Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences (2023) Vol. 6, Issue 21: 67-71. https://doi.org/10.25236/AJHSS.2023.062111.
 Abrams M. H.(2005). The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition. Translated by Li Zhiniu, Zhang Zhaojin and Tong Qingshen, proofread by Wang Ning. Beijing: Peking UP.
 Ji Li.(2017). Alienation and Redemption: Life in the Iron Mills and the 19th-Century American Industrial Society. Foreign Literature (05).
 Marx Leo. (1967). The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America. New York: Oxford UP, 180.
 Fromm Erich. (1990). The Sane Society. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
 Fromm Erich. (1966). Escape from Freedom. New York, Avon Books.
 Shrewd Anderson. (2016). Winsburg Ohio. Shanghai, Shanghai World Book Publishing House, 8,10,12,14,15,20,22,26,28,43,98.100.103.
 Li Li. (2010). Winesburg, Ohio: A Mirror Reflected the Life of a Small Town in Industrial Era of America. Journal of Northeast Agricultural University(05).
 Xu Ming, Wang Yang. (2008). On Love and Modernist Loneliness in The Ballad of the Sad Café. Foreign Literature Studies(06).
 Carson McCullers. (1959). The Flowering Dream: Notes on Writing. The Mortgaged Heart, edited by Margarita Smith, Harmon worth: Penguin Books, 280-281.
 Oliver Evans. (1957). Spiritual Isolation in Carson McCullers, The Mortgaged Heart, edited by Margarita Smith, Harmonsworth: Penguin Books.
 Howe Irving. (1967). Literary Modernism. Fawcett Premier, New York(22).
 Carson McCullers. (1951). The Ballad of the sad cafe. Houghton Mifflin Company, Michigan, 14,23,28,71,72.
 Michel Foucault. (2012). Madness and Civilization. Translated by Liu Beicheng, Yang Yuanying, Sanlian Publishing House, Beijing, 3,87.
 Xia, Zhongxian. (2000). The Study on Poetics of Bakhtin’s carnivalization. Beijing Normal University Publishing Group.
 Voltaire. (2017). Zadig ou la destinée. Translated by Fu Lei. Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 113.
 Jin Wen. (2022). Enlightenment and Emotion:“Human Science”in Thought and Literature in the 18th Century.Journal of East China Normal University Humanities and Social Sciences(01) .