Welcome to Francis Academic Press

Frontiers in Educational Research, 2020, 3(6); doi: 10.25236/FER.2020.030615.

Anxiety on Computer-Based Foreign Language Spoken Test: a Review of Literature


Deng Yingzi

Corresponding Author:
Deng Yingzi



Foreign language test anxiety is an essential factor affecting the performance of test takers. Computer-based foreign language spoken test (CBST) is a newly emerged test mode due to the advance in modern educational technology. This thesis assesses and synthesizes the recent empirical literature about anxiety on computer-based foreign language spoken test. The result shows that CBST does not aggravate anxiety experienced by participants; however, the sources for anxiety in CBST should be taken into consideration.


Computer-based foreign language spoken test(cbst), Anxiety, Sources for anxiety

Cite This Paper

Deng Yingzi. Anxiety on Computer-Based Foreign Language Spoken Test: a Review of Literature. Frontiers in Educational Research (2020) Vol. 3 Issue 6: 53-61. https://doi.org/10.25236/FER.2020.030615.


[1] Abrams, Z. I (2003). The effect of synchronous and asynchronous CMC on oral performance in German. The Modern Language Journal, no.87, pp.57 -67.
[2] Arnold, N (2007). Reducing foreign language communication apprehension with computer-mediated communication: A preliminary study. System, 35(4), 469-486.
[3] Aydin S (2018). Technology and foreign language anxiety: Implications for practice and future research. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, vol.14, no.2, pp.193-211
[4] Baralt, M., Gurzynski-Weiss, L (2011). Comparing learners’state anxiety during task-based interaction in computer-mediated and face-to-face communication. Language Teaching Research, vol.15, no.2, pp. 210-229.
[5] Dohl, C (2012). Foreign Language Student Anxiety and Expected Testing Method: Face-to-Face Versus Computer Mediated Testing. Unpublished Ph. D thesis, University of Nevada, America.
[6] Ellis, R (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford University Press.
[7] GrÖs, D. F., Antony, M. M., Simms, L. J, et al (2007) Psychometric properties of the strait-trait inventory for cognitive and somatic anxiety (STICSA): Comparison to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Psychological Assessment, vol.19, no.4, pp.369-381.
[8] Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., Cope, J (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, vol.70, no.2, pp.125‐132.
[9] Horwitz, E. K (2001). Language anxiety and achievement. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, Vol. 21, Cambridge University Press.
[10] Hsu, H. Y., Wang, S. W., Comac, L (2008). Using audio-blogs to assist English-language learning:An investigation into student perception. Computer Assisted Language Learning, vol.21, no.2, pp.181 -198
[11] Huang, H. D., Hung, S. A (2013).Comparing the Effects of Test Anxiety on Independent and Integrated Speaking Test Performance. TESOL Quarterly, vol.47, no.2, pp.244-269.
[12] Kenyon, M. D., Malabonga, V (2001). Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments. Language Learning&Technology, vol. 5, no.2, pp.60-83.
[13] Kern, R (1995). Restructuring classroom interaction with networked computers: Effects on quantity and characteristics of language production. The Modern Language Journal, no.79, pp.75 -76.
[14] Li, Y (2009). An empirical study of the effect of the large-scale computer-assisted Spoken English Test. Foreign Language World, vol.30, no.4, pp.69-76.
[15] Lowe, J, Yu, X (2009). Computer Assisted Testing of Spoken English: A Study of the SFLEP College English Oral Test System in China. SYSTEMICS, CYBERNETICS AND INFORMATICS, vol.7, no.3, pp.33-38.
[16] MacIntyre, P. D, Gardner, R. C (1994). The subtle effects of language anxiety on cognitive processing in the second language. Language Learning, no.44, pp.283 -305.
[17] Öztekin, E (2011). A Comparison of Computer Assisted and Face-To-Face Speaking Assessment: Performance, Perceptions, Anxiety, and Computer Attitudes. Unpublished master’s thesis, Bilkent University, Turkey.
[18] Poza, M. I. C (2011). The effects of asynchronous computer voice conferencing on L2 learners’speaking anxiety. The International Association for Language Learning Technology Journal, vol.41, no.1, pp.33 -63.
[19] Ray, N. M., Minch, R. P (1990). Computer anxiety and alienation: Toward a definitive and parsimonious measure. Human Factors, no.32, pp.175-191.
[20] Saadé, R. G, Kira, D (2007). Mediating the impact of technology usage on perceived ease of use by anxiety. Computers & Education, vol.49, no.4, pp.1189-1204.
[21] Sarason, I. G (1978). The Test anxiety scale: Concept and research. In C. D. Spielberger & I. G. Sarason(Eds. ), Stress and anxiety. Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing Corp, vol. 5, pp. 193-216
[22] Sayin, B. A (2015). Exploring Anxiety in Speaking Exams and How it Affects Students’Performance. International Journal of Education and Social Science, vol. 2, no. 12, pp.112-118
[23] Shi, F (2012). Exploring Students’Anxiety in Computer-based Oral English Test. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, vol. 3, no. 3, 446-451
[24] Smith, B. L(2003). Conventional versus computer-based administration of measures of cognitive ability: An analysis of psychometric, behavioral, experiential and relativity of equivalence. Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
[25] Song, J. W (2009). An investigation into the effects of an oral English diary using a voice bulletin board on English spoken performance. Multimedia-Assisted Language Learning, vol.12, no.1, pp.125 -150.
[26] Spielberger, C. D (1983). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y). Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press.
[27] Sun, Y. C. (2007). A Contrast Analysis and Study of Anxiety in Test of Spoken English between Computer-aided and Traditional Form. Journal of Changchun Normal University(Humanities and Social Sciences), vol.26, no.4,  pp.140-143
[28] Terantino, J (2014). Skype video conferencing for less commonly taught languages: Examining the effects on students'foreign language anxiety. Paper presented at Southern Conference on Language Teaching :Dimension, pp.135-154.
[29] Valencia Robles, J (2017). Anxiety in language testing: The APTIS case. Profile: Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, vol.19, no. 1, pp.39-50.
[30] Van Moere(2010). Automated spoken language testing: test construction and scoring model developmenT. Computer-based Assessment of Foreign Language Speaking Skills CBA 2010. European Commission, 84-99.
[31] Xu, L., Zhao, X., Zheng, C. Lu, Z (2017). Speaking-related Anxiety in Computer-Assisted Language Testing Settings. the 25th International Conference on Computers in Education. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education
[32] Yan X, Horwitz, E. K (2008). Learners’Perceptions of How Anxiety Interacts With Personal and Instructional Factors to Influence Their Achievement in English: A Qualitative Analysis of EFL Learners in China. Language Learning, vol.58, no.1, pp.151-183
[33] Yang, Y, Li, M (2010). A study on attitudes of college students in the computer-based oral English test environment. Foreign Language World, vol.31, no.6, pp.78-84.
[34] ang Y (2017). Test Anxiety Analysis of Chinese College Students in Computer-based Spoken English Test. Educational Technology & Society, vol.20, no.2, pp.63 -73
[35] Young, D. J (1991). Creating a low-anxiety classroom environment: What does language anxiety research suggest?The Modern Language Journal, vol.75, no.4, pp.426 -439.
[36] Yu, G, Zhang, J (2017). Computer-Based English Language Testing in China: Present and Future. Language Assessment Quarterly, vol.14, no.2, pp.177-188.