Welcome to Francis Academic Press

Academic Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, 2020, 3(8); doi: 10.25236/AJHSS.2020.030801.

Analysis of Causes of Fatal Accidents in Recreational Diving Based on the Reason Model and the Delphi Method


Jiali He

Corresponding Author:
Jiali He

Sport Science College of Lingnan Normal University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong, 524048, China


The Delphi method was used to investigate the causes of fatal accidents in recreational diving by three rounds of questionnaire surveys on six Chinese experts in recreational diving based on the four factors - unsafe acts that cause accident, preconditions for unsafe acts, unsafe supervision and organizational influences - in the REASON model in psychology. A retroactive analysis was carried out to investigate the causes of accidents, and corresponding suggestions were proposed. The research found that unsafe acts, including technical fault and intentional violation, are the direct causes of accidents. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a qualification system for recreational diving in China. In terms of preconditions for unsafe acts, though the objective factors are uncontrollable, news media and print media can be united to create a good environment to improve people’s safety awareness. Unsafe supervision refers to inadequate supervision, failure in early-warning of known hazards and poor review of diving licenses by clubs; to address these problems, clubs should improve personnel management and the club registration association should take full charge in coordination and control. Organizational influences in recreational diving mainly refer to the absence of rules and regulations, failure of the top-level institutions in China to perform their duties, and the lack of management, so it is advisable that the top-level institutions of the recreational diving industry perform their duties and take better management measures to improve the safety management system and safety regulations for recreational diving as soon as possible.


Reason model, Delphi method, Recreational diving, Fatal accident, Cause analysis

Cite This Paper

Jiali He. Analysis of Causes of Fatal Accidents in Recreational Diving Based on the Reason Model and the Delphi Method. Academic Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences (2020) Vol. 3, Issue 8: 1-12. https://doi.org/10.25236/AJHSS.2020.030801.


[1] Internal training materials of Zhanjiang Diving School of General Administration of Sport of China CMAS[M]. Training Materials for Grade I Divers, p18.

[2] Wang J. Love scuba diving: Discover the underwater beauties[M]. Guangzhou: Guangdong Travel & Tourism Press, 2015: 6-8.

[3] Sun ZL. Current situation, contradiction, and governance of sports tourism in China[J]. Journal of Guangzhou Sports University, 2018, 38 (4): 37-40.

[4] Reason J. Human error: Models and management. [J]. Western Journal of medicine,2000,172(6):393. medicine,2000,172(6): 393.

[5] Zhu LJ, Liu K. Human factors and aviation regulations[M]. Beijing: Ordnance Industry Press, 2006.

[6] Peng ZR. Study of the application of REASON model in aviation accident analysis[J]. Journal of Changsha Aeronautical Vocational and Technical College, 2017, 17 (3): 83-88.

[7] Lv CY, Fang CH. Human factor analysis and classification system (HFACS) and analysis of accident cases[J]. Journal of Civil Aviation Flight University of China, 2009, 20 (2): 37-40.

[8] Wang YG, Zhang PP. Organizational-influences-based cause analysis of aviation accidents[J]. Journal of Civil Aviation Flight University of China, 2007, (4): 9-12.