Mengxue Han, Yuexin Liu and Xibin Gao*
Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai Institute of Physical Education
To explore the risk factors of refractive errors in hearing-impaired children, and put forward some suggestions for the prevention and control of refractive errors in hearing-impaired children. Methods: Stratified cluster sampling was used to select 500 students aged 6 - 12 from Shanghai Deaf school and Shanghai ordinary primary school, respectively, for questionnaire survey and field visual acuity screening. The results showed that : (1) The refractive error rate of hearing impaired children aged 6 - 12 years increased gradually with the increase of age; It is far the most common refractive error in hearing-impaired children, and girls are higher than boys (P<0.05); (2) Parental inheritance is an uncontrollable genetic factor for hearing-impaired children. Among them, the refractive error rate of hearing-impaired children with a family history of inbreeding is as high as 33.3%(P<0.05, OR=1.514); (3) Poor eye habits: Excessive screen time, insufficient sleep, left-behind children are the risk factors for refractive error of hearing-impaired children (P<0.05); (4) Scientific wear glasses and check eyesight regularly. Exercising outdoors for more than 1 hour every day has obvious prevention and regulation effect on refractive error of hearing-impaired children (P<0.05). Conclusion: The refractive error rate of hearing-impaired children is higher than that of healthy hearing-impaired children. The screen time and exercise time of left-behind children with inbreeding history, poor reading and writing habits are important factors that cause the difference of refractive error between hearing-impaired children and healthy hearing-impaired children.
Hearing-impaired children, Refractive error, Vision, Influencing factors, A comparative analysis
Mengxue Han, Yuexin Liu and Xibin Gao. Comparison of influencing factors of refractive error between hearing-impaired children and healthy children. Academic Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences (2020) Vol. 3, Issue 8: 70-81. https://doi.org/10.25236/AJHSS.2020.030807.
 Zhang Xingli, Shi Jiannong, Liming, et al. Comparison of visual attention skills between hearing impairment and hearing normal children [J]. Chinese Journal of Mental Health, 2007 (12): 812-816.
 Leading Group of the second National Sample Survey of Disabled Persons, National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. Bulletin of the Main data of the Second National Sample Survey of Disabled Persons in 2006 [J]. Chinese Rehabilitation Theory and Practice, 2006, 12 (12): 1013.
 Cruickshanks K J, Dhar S, Dinces E, et al. Hearing impairment prevalence and associated risk factors in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos [J]. JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery, 2015, 141 (7): 641-648.
 Gogate P, Rishikeshi N, Mehata R, et al. Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students [J]. Indian journal of ophthalmology, 2009, 57 (6): 451.
 Nikolopoulos T P, Lioumi D, Stamataki S, et al. Evidence-based overview of ophthalmic disorders in deaf children: a literature update [J]. Otology Neurotology, 2006, 27: S1-S24
 Wang Cuiyan, Yang Guangxue. Review of comparative Research on visual Ability of hearing-impaired And Healthy Listeners [J]. China Special Education, 2016 (06): 26-31.
 Fotouhi A, Hashemi H, Yekta A A, et al. Characteristics of astigmatism in a population of schoolchildren, Dezful, Iran[J]. Optometry and Vision Science, 2011, 88 (9): 1054-1059.
 Onakpoya O H, Omotoye O J. Screening for ophthalmic disorders and visual impairment in a Nigerian school for the deaf [J]. European journal of ophthalmology, 2010, 20 (3): 596-600.
 Ostadimoghaddam H, Mirhajian H, Yekta A A, et al. Eye problems in children with hearing impairment[J]. Journal of current ophthalmology, 2015, 27 (1-2): 56-59.
 Bakhshaee M, Banaee T, Ghasemi M M, et al. Ophthalmic disturbances in children with sensorineural hearing loss [J]. European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology, 2009, 266 (6): 823.
 He M, Huang W, Zheng Y, et al. Refractive error and visual impairment in school children in rural southern China [J]. Ophthalmology, 2007, 114 (2): 374-382. e1.
 Ren y l, Lin w, huang y m, et al. Epidemiological investigation of annual prevalence and incidence of myopia among primary school students in zhongshan city [J]. International journal of ophthalmology, 2010, 10 (11): 2150-2152.
 Fotouhi A, Hashemi H, Khabazkhoob M, et al. The prevalence of refractive errors among schoolchildren in Dezful, Iran [J]. British journal of ophthalmology, 2007, 91 (3): 287-292.
 Guy R, Nicholson J, Pannu S S, et al. A clinical evaluation of ophthalmic assessment in children with sensori‐neural deafness [J]. Child: care, health and development, 2003, 29 (5): 377-384.
 Xu Wenyan. Risk factors Assessment and Intervention countermeasures for myopia among primary and middle school students in Shanghai [D]. Fudan University, 2009.
 Al-Ani R M, Mohsin T M, Hassan Z M, et al. Importance of ophthalmological examination in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss[J]. Saudi Med J, 2009, 30 (9): 1197-201.
 Wang renwei, zhang xiaoyun, li qing. Investigation on the status quo of physical exercise, vision, learning and sleep time of adolescents in Shanghai [J]. Journal of physical education science, 2008, 29 (03): 91-93.
 Stevens G, Flaxman S, Brunskill E, et al. Global and regional hearing impairment prevalence: an analysis of 42 studies in 29 countries [J]. The European Journal of Public Health, 2013, 23 (1): 146-152.
 Mafong D D, Pletcher S D, Hoyt C, et al. Ocular findings in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss[J]. Archives of Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery, 2002, 128 (11): 1303-1306.
 Yang fuyi, tan heping, Chen jin, et al. Research on learning adaptability of hearing impaired students [J]. Basic education, 2012, 9 (03): 111-117.
 Theophanous C, Modjtahedi B S, Batech M, et al. Myopia prevalence and risk factors in children[J].Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, NZ), 2018, 12: 1581.
 Low W, Dirani M, Gazzard G,et al. Family history, near work, outdoor activity, and myopia in Singapore Chinese preschool children [J]. Br J Ophthalmol, 2010, 94 (8): 1012-1016.
 Sharma A, Ruscetta M N, Chi D H. Ophthalmologic findings in children with sensorineural hearing loss [J]. Archives of Otolaryngology–Head Neck Surgery, 2009, 135 (2): 119-123.
 Saw S M, Chan Y H, Wong W L, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in the Singapore Malay Eye Survey [J]. Ophthalmology, 2008, 115 (10): 1713-1719.