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Frontiers in Medical Science Research, 2022, 4(12); doi: 10.25236/FMSR.2022.041203.

Pathogenesis and Targeted Biologic Therapies for Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy: A Review


Rui Ma1, Fuguang He2, Yueyue Chai1, Yuting Shao1, Fuqiang Liu1, Hong Lai1

Corresponding Author:
Hong Lai

1Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan City, Shandong Province, China

2Pingyuan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Dezhou City, Shandong Province, China


Purpose: To review the pathogenesis and current targeted biologic therapies of Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). Methods: Pubmed, Cochrane Library databases, Wanfang database and recent relevant journal articles were searched. Results: TAO, a potentially vision-threatening disease, is the most common extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves’ Disease (GD). The complex pathogenesis of TAO involves in multiple factors, which has puzzled scientists for many years. With emerging advances in pathogenesis of TAO, novel therapeutic targets have been discovered. For example, rituximab (that acts against CD20), tocilizumab (that acts against the IL-6 receptor), teprotumumab (that blocks IGF-1R) and TNF-αinhibitors have proven to be useful and safe therapeutic options in TAO treatment. Conclusions: Targeted biological agents can provide many benefits for TAO treatments. And there is still a long way to go before the potential molecular pathogenesis and novel treatment options of GO are revealed.


Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy, Pathogenesis, Monoclonal Antibodies

Cite This Paper

Rui Ma, Fuguang He, Yueyue Chai, Yuting Shao, Fuqiang Liu, Hong Lai. Pathogenesis and Targeted Biologic Therapies for Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy: A Review. Frontiers in Medical Science Research (2022) Vol. 4, Issue 12: 11-19. https://doi.org/10.25236/FMSR.2022.041203.


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