Welcome to Francis Academic Press

Academic Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, 2022, 5(15); doi: 10.25236/AJHSS.2022.051513.

The influence of Ethnic Identity on students' Problem Behaviors in Rural Tibet Elementary Boarding School: the mediating role of School Belonging


Chunni Zhao1,2, Xini Zhao3

Corresponding Author:
Chunni Zhao

1School of Marxism, Foshan University, Foshan, China

2School of Educational Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China

3School of Culture Communication, Loudi Vocational and Technical College, Loudi, China


A questionnaire survey was conducted on 211 rural Tibetan boarding elementary school students to explore the effects of ethnic identity and school belonging on elementary school students' problems behaviors, and a mediating effect test was conducted based on school belonging as a way to construct a model of the relationship between the three, and to investigate the mechanisms for promoting the psychological health of rural boarding elementary school students in ethnic areas.The results found that (1)Ethnic identity, school belonging, and problems behaviors of primary school students in rural boarding schools in Tibet is better than the median of theory. (2) Externalizing problems were bilaterally correlated to ethnic identity and school belonging while internalizing behavior only correlated to school belonging. (3)Ethnic identity influences externalizing behaviors through school belonging. It was concluded that school belonging mediated the role of ethnic identity in influencing externalizing behaviors of elementary school students.


ethnic identity; school belonging; problems behaviors; rural boarding primary school

Cite This Paper

Chunni Zhao, Xini Zhao. The influence of Ethnic Identity on students' Problem Behaviors in Rural Tibet Elementary Boarding School: the mediating role of School Belonging. Academic Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences (2022) Vol. 5, Issue 15: 103-108. https://doi.org/10.25236/AJHSS.2022.051513.


[1] Che Wenbo. The Encyclopedia of Psychological Counseling. Zhejiang Science and Technology Publishing Company, 2001, 132.

[2] Chi Liping, Xin Ziqiang. The characteristics and relationship of primary school children's problem behavior, peer relationship and loneliness feeling.Psychology Science, 2003, 26(5), 790-794.

[3] Lv Qin, Chen Huichang, Wang Li. Review of studies on child problem behaviors and their related parenting factors. Psychology Science, 2003, (1), 125-127.

[4] Achenbach T M. Manual for the Child Behaviour Checklist. Burlington, Department of Psychiatry, 1991, 4-18 

[5] Hoglund W.L., &Chisholm C. A . (2014).Reciprocating risks of peer problems and aggression for children’s internalizing problems .Developmental Psychology, 50 (2), 586-599.

[6] Sulik M.J., Blair C., Mills-koonce R., Berry D.,& Greenberg M . ( 2015).Early parenting and the development of externalizing behavior problems: longitudinal mediation through children's executive function.Child Development, 86, (5), 1588-1603.

[7] Wu Huaineng, Wang Zhen. Prevalence of depression symptoms and intervention effect in migrant worker schools in Hangzhou. Chinese Journal of School Health, 2018, 39(9), 64-66.

[8] Verlaan P M, Déry,Temcheff C E, et al. Longitudinal Determinants of School-Based Mental Health Service Use for Girls and Boys with Externalizing Behavior Problems. School Mental Health, 2018, 10(3), 322-337.

[9] Taylor S E. The tending instinct: how nurturing is essential to who we are and how we live. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 2004, 25(7), 747-749 

[10] Fanti K A. Trajectories of pure and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems from age 2 to age 12: findings from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Developmental Psychology, 2010, 46(5), 1159-1175.

[11] Lei Pi, Developmental Psychology (The fourth edition), China Renmin University Publishing Company y Press, 2021, 118-119.

[12] LIU Fang, LIU Wen, YU Tengxu. Relation between emotion regulation and child problem behaviors based on the perspective of temperament. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(4): 646-656

[13] Rosenberg M. Society and the adolescent self-image. Social Forces, 1965, 3(2), 1780-1790.

[14] Zhang Yuyun, Tuo Fang, Tao Sha. The impact of family SES and parental education investment on the academic achievement of migrant children. Psychological Science, 2015, 38(1), 19-26.

[15] Ngai S Y, Cheung C K, Xie L, et al. Psychometric Properties of the Parental Bonding Instrument: Data from a Chinese Adolescent Sample in Hong Kong. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 2018, 27(7), 2112-2124.

[16] Fang Xiaoyi, Zhang Jingtao, Xu Jie. Adolescent-mother Discrepancies in Perception of parental conflict and adolescent problem behaviors. Psychological Science. 2004, 27(1), 21-25.

[17] Loukas A, Murphy L. Middle school student perceptions of school climate: Examining protective functions on subsequent adjustment problems. Journal of School Psychology, 2007, 45(3), 293-309

[18] Yu Yibing, Ge Minggui. Characteristics of perceived school climate and its relationship with school adjustment of middle school students: school attitude as mediator. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 2010, 18(2), 225-227.

[19] McCowan,C.J.,&Alston,R. J. (1998).Racial identity,African self ‐ consciousness,and career decision making in African American college women.Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 26 (1),28-38. 

[20] Yin Keli, Li Peng, Bao Guanghua. Influence of National socialization experience on the positive mental health of Tibetan youth:the intermediary role of national identity and self-esteem.Journal 

of Huanasouth China Nomal University (Social Sciences Edition),2016,(1):78-84. 

[21] Lu Yao ,Chen Yi,Zhang Qinglin.The Theoretical Model and Function of Ethnic Identification Exhibition of Ethnic Minority Youth.Social psychological science,2007(21):40-44. 

[22] Zhang Xiang. The relationship between adolescent national identity and personality characteristics and mental health.Chinese Journal of School Health,2012,33(4):414-416

[23] Allen, Kelly, Kern, Margaret L.,Vella-Brodrick, Dianne,Hattie, John,Waters, Lea .What schools need to know about fostering school belonging: a meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 2016. 1-34

[24] Bao Kebing, Xu Qinmei. Preliminary study on School belonging of School Students.Psychological Exploration,2006,26(2):51-54

[25] Connell, J.P. and Wellborn, J.G. Competence, Autonomy, and Relatedness: A Motivational Analysis of Self- System Processes. In Gunnar, M.R. and Sroufe, L.A., Eds., Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology,1991(23): 43-77

[26] Heather P.Libbey.Measuring Student Relationships to School: Attachment, Bonding, Connectedness, and Engagement .Journal of School Health, September , 2004,74 (7):274-283

[27] Yang xiaojun,Tang bingbing.(2009).The mediating effect of schooling belonging on the relationship between Ethnic Identity and loneliness in college student in Ethnic university, Journal of guangxi university for rationality 2019,25(4 ): 98-102

[28] Yang Shuzi, Yu Dongsheng.Quality education: Chinese education achievement after 30 years of reform and opening up,2009(20):110-113

[29] Wang Li.Research on the emotional care of rural boarding primary school students.Journal of Inner Mongolia Normal University (Education Science ),2011,24(12):52-54

[30] Shi Huiying, Zhang Qinglin,Fan Fenghui. A study on psychology of national identity of ethnic minority university students in southwestern Regions. Journal of Research on Education for Ethnic Minorities ,2007,18(2): 33-36

[31] Goodman A, Lamping D L, Ploubidis G B. When to use broader internalizing and externalizing sub scales instead of the hypothesis five subscales on the Strengths and Difficultie Questionnaire (SDQ): data from British parents, teachers and children. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 2010, 38(8), 1179-1191.

[32] Hayes,A. F. (2012) .PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation,moderation,and conditional process modeling.Retrieved from http: /www.Afhayes.com / public/public/process2012. pdf