Welcome to Francis Academic Press

Frontiers in Educational Research, 2022, 5(22); doi: 10.25236/FER.2022.052203.

Progress of bilingual reading studies in Tibetan and Chinese


Danhui Wang

Corresponding Author:
Danhui Wang

School of Education, Tibet University, Lhasa, Tibet, 850000, China


At present, there are few eye movement studies on Tibetan-Chinese bilingual reading. This paper sorts out the relevant research and puts forward some ideas for future research. First, investigate the role of tshegs in Tibetan reading. Second, investigate the influence of adding spaces between words in Tibetan texts on Tibetan reading. Third, investigate the mechanism of word saturation in Tibetan reading. Fourth, investigate whether there is "character transposition effect" in Tibetan reading? Fifth, investigate the extraction of semantic information from the parafoveal in Tibetan reading.


Tibetan; reading; eye movement

Cite This Paper

Danhui Wang. Progress of bilingual reading studies in Tibetan and Chinese. Frontiers in Educational Research (2022) Vol. 5, Issue 22: 12-17. https://doi.org/10.25236/FER.2022.052203.


[1] Bai X J, Gao X L, Gao L, Wang Y S. An eye movement study on the perceptual span in reading Tibetan language[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(05):569-576.

[2] Gao X L, Li X W, Sun M, Bai X J, Gao L. The word frequency effect of fovea and its effect on the preview effect of parafovea in Tibetan reading[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2020, 52(10):1143-1155.

[3] Wang A, Yan M, Wang B, et al. The perceptual span in Tibetan reading[J]. Psychological Research, 2021, 85(3): 1307-1316.

[4] Zhang J J, Cui Z L. Language Switching and Switching Cost in Tibetan-Mandarin-English' Visual Word Recognition[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2008, 40(2): 136-147.

[5] Cui Z L, Zhang J J. A Research on Lexical and Conceptual Representations in Tibetan-Mandarin-English Trilinguals[J]. Psychological Science, 2009, 32(03):559-562.

[6] Gao L, Gao X L, Bai X J, Cheng M X, Guo Z Y. Language Switching and Switching Cost in Language Comprehension of Tibetan-Chinese Bilinguals With Different Proficiency Levels[J]. Studies of Psychology and Behavior, 2018,16(06):744-750.

[7] Gao X L, Shen M, Ren X F, Bai X J, Gao L. The Perceptual Span and Parafoveal Preview Effect of Tibetan-Chinese Readers with High and Low Chinese Level in Reading Chinese[J]. Studies of Psychology and Behavior, 2021, 19(3): 297-303.

[8] Gao X L, Shen M, Li H Y, Bai X J, Gao L. An Eye Movement Study of Chinese Word Recognition of Tibetan Native Speakers [J]. Studies of Psychology and Behavior, 2020, 18(1):45-52.

[9] Li X W, Li S, Gao L, et al. Eye Movement Control in Tibetan Reading: The Roles of Word Length and Frequency[J]. Brain Sciences, 2022, 12(9): 1205.

[10] O'Regan J K, Jacobs A M. Optimal viewing position effect in word recognition: A challenge to current theory[J]. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1992, 18(1): 185-197.

[11] Rayner K, Fischer M H, Pollatsek A. Unspaced text interferes with both word identification and eye movement control [J]. Vision research, 1998, 38(8): 1129-1144.

[12] Kohsom C, Gobet F. Adding spaces to Thai and English: Effects on reading[C].Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society, 1997, 19(1): 388-393.

[13] Winskel H, Radach R, Luksaneeyanawin S. Eye movements when reading spaced and unspaced Thai and English: A comparison of Thai–English bilinguals and English monolinguals[J]. Journal of Memory and Language, 2009, 61(3): 339-351.

[14] Liu I M, Yeh J S, Wang L H, et al. Effects of arranging Chinese words as units on reading efficiency [J]. Acta Psychologica Taiwanica, 1974, 16: 25-32.

[15] Wang H F. To space or not space? Interword spacing effects on Chinese children's reading materials [J]. Ergonomics, 2015, 58(12): 1947-1959.

[16] Bai X, Yan G, Liversedge S P, et al. Reading spaced and unspaced Chinese text: evidence from eye movements [J]. Journal of experimental psychology: Human perception and performance, 2008, 34(5): 1277-1287.

[17] Ma G. Does interword spacing influence lexical processing in Chinese reading [J]. Visual Cognition, 2017, 25(7-8): 815-824.

[18] Ma G, Li D, Zhuang X. Do visual word segmentation cues improve reading performance in Chinese reading [J]. Ergonomics, 2019, 62(8): 1086-1097.

[19] Zang C, Liang F, Bai X, et al. Interword spacing and landing position effects during Chinese reading in children and adults [J]. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2013, 39(3): 720-734.